如何訓練鐵人三項女性運動員?(How To Coaching Female Athletes In Triathlon?)
How To Coaching Female Athletes In Triathlon?
截至2011年，所有美國鐵人三項協會年度成員中有38.46%是女性 (56,404名女性)。如果與最有經驗的教練交談，那麼他們會告訴你，幾乎沒有什麼特質與性別有獨特的聯繫 (除了懷孕和相關問題)，所以，真的沒有所謂的“女運動員訓練計劃”。相反，教練應該從個體的角度看待運動員，在指導運動員時要考慮她們的優點、弱點和目標，而不是性別。然而，在訓練女性時，教練必須從生理角度、營養角度和醫學角度考慮兩性差異。此外，女運動員進行比賽和訓練時所用的心理技巧也不同。
As of 2011, 38.46 percent of all USAT annual members were female (56,404 women). Talk to most experienced coaches and they will tell you there are few characteristics associated uniquely with one gender or the other (aside from pregnancy and associated issues), so there really isn’t such a thing as a “female athlete” training plan. Rather, coaches should look at athletes individually, considering their strengths, weaknesses, and goals—not gender—when guiding them. However, there are some basic physiological, nutrition, and medical gender differences that coaches must consider when training females. Female athletes approach training and racing with different mental skills as well.
Female Physiological Concerns
Women have less muscle mass than most men. Female athletes must perform regular strength training to help slow the loss of muscle mass as they age to preserve that smaller initial amount of muscle. Exercises that stabilize the pelvis, shoulders, knees, and core are very important for women because they address the effects of the wider hips and larger hip–knee angles of the average woman’s body. Women who have the strength to keep their joints stable during running are much less susceptible to injury. Stable joints also lead to more efficient running, cycling, and swimming.
In addition, female athletes need access to a qualified bike-fit specialist. Women sometimes do not fit well on bikes designed with the male torso and leg lengths in mind. Bike manufacturers are beginning to realize this and offer bikes designed for women; a good bike fit is the most important component of optimizing rider performance.
Female Nutrition Concerns
All endurance athletes are susceptible to running a calorie deficit during high-volume or high-intensity training blocks. All athletes may be susceptible to disordered eating, although it is arguably far more prevalent in the female athlete. Both disordered eating and accidentally inadequate nutrition in women can lead to the female athlete triad, a gender-unique medical issue that can have serious health implications. The triad begins with inadequate nutrition, disordered eating, or both and progresses to amenorrhea (the absence of menstruation) and then osteoporosis. These are difficult issues to address as a coach. Female athletes may not be honest about these highly personal topics with a coach. When they are, most coaches are not qualified to fully address them. This is an appropriate time to refer these athletes to an expert you trust, then work as a team with that expert to coordinate training with nutrition goals. Of course, coaches should never promote thinness as a training objective. Instead, coaches should give athletes solid, general, proven advice on how to fuel their training and racing.
Female Medical Concerns
女性長跑運動員更容易受傷。根據記錄，主要原因在於女性的身體結構: 骨盆較寬，因此從膝蓋到骨盆區域的角度也更大，這可能導致髕股骨關節損傷和髂脛束綜合征; 受雌激素的影響，女性韌帶也更加鬆弛。鬆弛的韌帶意味著沒有良好的軟組織支撐，關節會過度活動。這些生理結構會提高受傷的概率。通過強化和穩定髖關節和膝關節的肌肉，專項力量訓練可以預防和治癒以上大多數傷病。
Female runners tend to be more susceptible to training injuries. Commonly documented reasons for this include the structure of a woman’s body, with its wider pelvis and therefore greater angle from the knee up to the pelvis area. This can lead to increased patellofemoral injuries and iliotibial band syndrome. Females also tend to have loose ligaments—possibly due to the impact of estrogen. Loose ligaments mean hypermobile joints that are not as well supported by soft tissue connections. This can also result in a higher chance of injuries. Most of these injuries can be resolved and prevented with specific strength training targeted at strengthening the weaker muscles that stabilize the hip and the knee.
Women are more susceptible to stress fractures and anemia than are men. Remind all athletes to consume a diet rich in calcium, iron, and vitamin D, and urge female athletes to be checked for signs of anemia with annual blood tests. Supplement with iron only when under medical supervision, as it can be harmful in excess. Stress fractures are often a result of inadequate nutrition or the female athlete triad.
If a female athlete becomes pregnant, she should defer to her doctor for guidance on how it will affect her activity. Pregnancy affects every athlete differently. Some women are able to run, bike, and swim until near the end of their pregnancies with a physician’s guidance. Others find they really need to back off from training for much of their pregnancies. Every woman should consider the safety of each activity done while pregnant as well as how the activity contributes to her and her baby’s health and well-being.
Female Mental Concerns
教練喬·弗里爾寫了許多和耐力訓練有關的書，他曾說道: “我發現女性在遵守比賽計劃方面要好得多——有時簡直完美，即使她們已經能在比賽時跑得更快，她們也會繼續堅持訓練計劃; 而男性首先想到的是要“超越”這個計劃。“因此，好的教練會說服女運動員在需要的時候承擔合理的風險。指派她們在C類或B類賽中承擔一個特定的風險 (例如，讓她們比平常更用力地騎行，看看對跑步有什麼影響，讓她們明白這場比賽的目標只是學習，允許女運動員在冒預計的風險時失敗)。
“I’ve found that women are much better at following the race plan—sometimes too good. Even if they have what it takes to go faster on race day, they will often hold back and follow their plan,” says Joe Friel, coach, and author of many books on endurance training. “Men, on the other hand, start with the notion they are going to ‘beat’ the plan.” So, good coaching may mean convincing female athletes to take justified risks when warranted. Assign them to take a specific risk in a C or a B race. (For example, have them push harder than normal for the bike segment to see how it affects the run. Convince them that learning is the goal for this race, not overall time. Give them permission to fail when taking a calculated risk.)
When coaching a woman, also consider her background and experiences as a female athlete. Has she had opportunities as an athlete or were there times when she was not supported in her sporting endeavors? Many women were never brought up to think of themselves as athletes. Sometimes, a coach’s main objective with these women is to get them to that point—to where they dare to describe themselves as “an athlete.” Once there, the possibilities are endless. But until then, how can a woman race to her potential if she does not yet have that fundamental belief that she belongs in the race?
In addition, female athletes frequently struggle to balance work, family, and training— as do male athletes. Without balance, a female athlete will never reach her potential. Coaches should plan rest days, vacations, big work weeks, and time for children and spouses into all athletes’ days, weeks, seasons, and annual training plans. An athlete’s career should revolve around having no regrets. When she is retired from racing and is reminiscing about this part of her life, what will seem important after all those years? Time with loved ones; full involvement with her children; energy spent on other activities that provide emotional, spiritual, and social balance in her life—these should all be good memories along with the memories of training and racing well.
每位鐵人三項運動員都是獨特的個體，每個人的技能、缺點、計畫安排、精力、目標和生活環境大相徑庭。好的教練會理解每一位運動員，並制訂出能幫助他們發揮潛能的訓練方法。 Every triathlete is a unique person with unique skills, weaknesses, schedules, energy levels, goals, and life circumstances. A good coach will understand each athlete and prescribe the training that will help him reach his potential.
From USA triathlon