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專注於技術(Focusing on Technique)


專注於技術(Focusing on Technique)


假設你正處於新賽季開始的時機!充滿新鮮感的再啓程,將自己掏空準備重新裝滿,更是一個讓自己比上賽季更進一步、讓自己的泳技更進一籌的大好機會。等等,有一個簡單的問題,從哪著手開始呢?

It’s the beginning of a new season. A fresh start, a blank page, a chance to be better than last season, to take your swimming to the next level. But, where to start?

很有可能你已經好幾周甚至一兩個月沒下水了,狀態也有所下滑: 離你規律張弛有度的訓練時候差遠了。所以,你在賽季早期的焦點應該放在將你的狀態建設「回原來好的程度,來確保這個賽季你也一樣成功。好了,我們該做點什麼?

Chances are, you’ve been out of the water for a few weeks and are somewhat out of shape—far from the taper and peak form you were enjoying not too long ago. So, what can you focus on at your early-season practices to gradually build back up, and ensure another successful season?



來自Bolles 校園鯊魚游泳隊的瓊·薩科維奇(Jon Sakovich),總教練,和戴爾·波特(Dale Porter),總年齡組育成教練,採取的是漸進式的賽季初訓練方式,結合了水中和岸上的訓練內容。Bolles 校園鯊魚隊培育出了多位奧運及世界級別金牌選手,包括:瑞安·墨菲(Ryan Murphy)、凱勒布·德雷索(Caeleb Dressel)和約瑟夫·斯古林(Joseph Schooling),足以證明他們方法的有效性。

Jon Sakovich and Dale Porter, the head coach and head age group coach at The Bolles School Sharks—a team that has produced Olympic and World Championship gold medalists Ryan Murphy, Caeleb Dressel, and Joseph Schooling—take a gradual approach to get their swimmers ready for the season, focusing on elements both in and out of the water.


1. 回歸基礎訓練

在下水實訓之前,賽季一開始是進行標準技術動作精修、鞏固、提高的最好時機,訓練內容應該著重放在穩固正確動作的岸上訓練上。薩科維奇和波特一般會用賽季最初的好幾個星期來為他們的游泳者鞏固這件事,每次訓練都要進行岸上的技術動作糾正和鞏固。

1. Back to Basics

Before getting back into actual in-water training, the beginning of the season is a great time to reinforce what proper technique should look like, as well as what exercises swimmers can do outside the pool to achieve that technique. Sakovich and Porter spend several weeks reviewing these things with their swimmers at each practice.

2. 分解技術動作與狀態調整


當技術部分已經鞏固到位,同時游泳者對於技術動作的理解也到位,正確的技術動作所需要的肌肉也已經在岸上通過負重和非負重的練習得到充分鍛鍊之後,游泳者才準備好將他們的知識化為實際的水下動作。在鯊魚隊,一開始的幾個星期,狀態調整訓練非常偏重於踢腿、水中的分解動作訓練、身體平衡與動作一致性的分解專項訓練。在這些分解訓練的基礎上,波特才安排他們逐漸進入到分組進行輕度有氧訓練。

鯊魚隊在賽季初期最著重的一個關注點就是打腿訓練:打腿的耐力訓練和讓身體習慣持續打腿的狀態、高速打腿、水下打腿。

波特說:「打腿訓練一般在賽季的早期時最著重的,我們會在最早的3-4周訓練中急劇增加持續打腿的距離,然後再把持續打腿的距離降下來,進行間歇性的高強度、速度型打腿訓練。「

水下打腿的動作在好幾週不下水之後退化的非常快,所以聚焦水下打腿的訓練也是非常重要的,因為隨著賽季開始馬上就有賽事要用到水下打腿了。

薩科維奇說:「從第一天開始我們就用鮑勃·吉列特(Bob Gillet,開發海豚腿的先驅教練)制定的訓練組來訓練,而且我們會把海豚腿的訓練組一直放在整個賽季的訓練計劃中,讓海豚腿的速度和力度在整個賽季持續得到提升。幸運的是我們在9月和10月都有高中級別的游泳切磋,我們因此可以為選手們海豚腿的提升進度持續監控到隨著賽季進行。」

2. Drills and Conditioning

With a solid understanding of proper technique and improved strength through dryland, swimmers are ready to translate their knowledge into action. At Bolles, the first few weeks of conditioning are heavily focused on kicking, drills, balance, and alignment, Porter said, and gradually progress towards lighter aerobic sets.

One of their major focuses early in the season is on kicking—kicking for endurance/conditioning, kicking for speed, and kicking underwater.

“The kicking is usually front-loaded at the beginning of the season,” Sakovich said. “We’ll increase the kicking yardage pretty quickly for about three to four weeks, then drop the yardage down and increase the intensity and speed of the kick sets.”

Underwater kicking can quickly go downhill after a few weeks out of the water, so it’s important to concentrate on that as well as the season gets underway.

“We start from day one and use two or three of (dolphin kicking pioneer coach) Bob Gillett’s sets, and we use them continuously throughout the season, looking for improved speed and stronger kicks throughout. We’re also fortunate to have a number of swim meets in September and October for high school season so we can regularly see how the underwaters are progressing,” Sakovich said.

3. 連貫與堅持

游泳訓練的所有這些方面:陸上、身體狀態再啓動、分解技術動作和專項訓練、打腿和狀態儲備—不僅在賽季開始的這段時間重要,而且在一整年的訓練中都重要。對於泳者來說,如果想要得到提升,他們必須持續的堅持在上述領域裡每天精進。不管是水上還是水下。賽季的開始就像是賽跑中發令槍響的起跑:一個好的起跑會讓你在比賽的一開始就確立優勢,如果你在一開始就不注意,那你就只好做追趕者了。

3. Consistency and Commitment

These aspects of swimming—dryland, activation, drills, kicking, and conditioning—aren’t just important at the start of the season, but the entire year. In order to improve, swimmers must be committed to executing these areas to the best of their ability every day, whether in the water or out. The start of the season is like the first breakout at the start of a race: a great breakout will put you ahead of the competition, while a poor one will leave you playing catch up.


本文出處- USA SWIMMING

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