游泳到自行車的轉換 (第一轉換) Swim to Bike Transition (T1)
眾所皆知，游泳會影響騎車的運動表現。一些研究表示，短時間高強度的游泳可能會降低騎車 的整體運動表現，如較高強度的鐵人三項比賽項目(750米游泳、騎20K的自行車、5000米的跑 步距離) ，因為許多運動員試圖讓腿游得比正常快。’’跟游’’可以克服高強度游泳的負面影響。 It is well known that swimming has an impact on subsequent cycling performance, with some studies demonstrating that overall cycling performance may be hindered by short-duration, high-intensity swimming, such as a sprint triathlon when the distance is much shorter (usually 750-meter swim, 20K bike, and 5K run), thus many athletes try to swim this leg much faster than normal. One method of countering the detrimental impact of high-intensity swimming is drafting.
‘’跟游‘’指的是運動員緊跟在另一名運動員的後面或另一名運動員平行的游泳，頭部和其臀部對齊。 ‘’跟游’’能減少被動阻力。相同距離，但水的阻力是減少的，相對功率消耗也會減少。此外，’’跟游’’ 還能提高划水的經濟性和效率，從而提高騎自行車的運動表現。為了充分發揮’’跟游’’的優勢，在距 離前一名運動員腳趾0.5米遠處‘’跟游‘’最佳，在划艇運動將平行‘’跟游‘’稱為‘’追趕船頭波‘’，而游泳 運動員的頭部可以和另一名游泳運動員的臀部平齊。在運動員沒有空間去追趕前一名運動員的腳趾 或周圍有其他運動員阻礙運動時，他可以採取這樣的‘’跟游‘’方式。 Drafting is the act of swimming very close behind or at hip level to another swimmer. It reduces passive drag, thus decreasing the effort to swim the same distance. Also drafting usually improves stroke economy and efficiency, therefore potentially improving the subsequent cycling performance. To take maximal advantage of drafting, swimming behind another triathlete at a distance up to 1.5 feet (0.5 m) back from the toes is the most advantageous; in lateral drafting—in kayaking, this is termed “catching the bow wave”—a swimmer’s head can be level with another swimmer’s hips. You would do this when there isn’t physical room to get behind another swimmer’s toes or there are other athletes all around you, preventing you from moving.
另外，許多鐵人三項運動員都知道諸如’’血液滯積’’和‘’直立性低血壓‘’等術語，但他們實際上並 不知道其中的含意。‘’直立性低血壓‘’的特點就是失去平衡、頭暈、視力模糊，甚至部分或完全喪失 意識。由於重力和肌肉運動的停止，血壓正常的運動員在游泳後可能會發生這種情況。事實上，一 項研究表示，出水時或準備轉換項目時，許多運動員都會嚴重頭暈，而受過良好訓練的耐力型運動 員卻更為普遍。如果運動員經常發生這種情況，應該立即尋求醫生的建議。好消息是，經醫生檢 查，大多數嚴重頭暈一般來說都是良性的。 Also, many triathletes are aware of terms such as blood pooling and orthostatic intolerance but don’t actually know what they are. Orthostatic intolerance is characterized by impaired balance, dizziness, blurred vision, or even partial or complete loss of consciousness. This may occur postswim in athletes with normal blood pressure because of gravitational stress and the removal of the muscle pump. In fact, one study showed that severe dizziness after swimming when exiting the water and standing up for the transition section is a common occurrence for many triathletes, but it is more prevalent in highly trained endurance athletes.
If this happens to you frequently, you should seek medical advice. However, the good news is that most athletes who get checked out by their doctors discover that severe dizziness is usually benign.
為了抵消重力的影響、維持血壓和靜脈回流，研究建議運動員繼續運動不要突然停止運動。在離 開水面脫下膠衣、停下來走過濕台階或沒有地毯的轉換區、彎腰穿上自行車鞋等情況下，這點特別 重要。離開水面後，消除頭暈的一個方法是儘快動用腿部肌肉，以快於正常跑步速度小跑至轉換 區。最終，這將改善運動員維持靜脈回流和血壓的能力。在轉換期間保持精神集中，並在自行車比 賽開始時運用節奏戰術，運動員將更快的完成第一個轉換項目。 To counteract the effect of gravity and maintain blood pressure and venous return, one study suggests continuing to keep moving rather than stopping abruptly. This is especially important when removing the wetsuit upon exiting the water, stopping to walk up wet steps or non carpeted transitions, bending down to put on cycling shoes, and so on. One way to offset dizziness as you leave the swim is to start utilizing the muscular pump by working the calf muscles as soon as possible, meaning you should take short steps at a higher cadence than normal as you make your way to the transition. Ultimately, this will improve your ability to maintain venous return and blood pressure, maintain mental concentration through the transition, and execute pacing strategies for the start of the cycling discipline—thus going faster out of T1.
出發 Starts 對許多鐵人三項運動員來說，游泳出發是最具挑戰性的技術。如果我們不談論該方面的技術，這 將會是個很大的失誤，尤其是在海浪滾滾的公開水域中。 It would be remiss if we did not touch on what for many triathletes is the most challenging skill—the swim start, especially if it is in open water and the waves are rolling into the beach.
或許絕大多數人犯的最大的錯誤就是’’太過心急’’- 如果一開始就迫不及待地衝刺到最前面，那 麼你會在前幾百米內和很多人有身體上的碰撞，而速度更快的運動員則逐漸超越他們或游到他們的 周圍。在波浪開始時等待幾秒鐘，讓速度較快的運動員先游，速度較慢的游泳者就有較大的空間在 平靜無干擾的水中游泳，也不會浪費太多時間。 Perhaps the biggest mistake most triathletes make is what we term overseeding—starting too near the front in a wave start and thus enduring a great deal of body contact in the first several hundred meters, as faster swimmers go over, under, or around them. Holding back a few seconds at the start of the wave allows many of the faster swimmers to go ahead, giving slower swimmers more open water to have a clean and contact-free swim without giving up too much time.
游泳節奏也需要考量。許多鐵人三項運動員在比賽前幾百米中表現得太過努力，在接下來的游泳 中甚至是比賽中會因此而受罪。所以，運動員要確保自己能在全程游泳中保持初始的節奏，甚至考 慮稍微放慢比賽初始的節奏，直到自己適應了游泳再開始加速。所以，運動員不如以較慢的節奏出 發，再以較快的節奏比賽。 Another matter to consider is the swimming pace. Many triathletes go off too hard in the first couple of hundred meters and suffer for this later in the swim and even the race. So ensure your start pace is something you can keep up for the whole swim portion, or even consider a slightly slower race pace at first until you get comfortable in the water, and then start cranking it up. It is better to start a bit slower and finish fast rather than the other way round.
也許改變游泳出發的唯一方法就是’’練習’’。例如在泳池中，幾名鐵人三項運動員可以在同一條泳 道上同時出發，模擬比賽時身體發生接觸的狀態，包括相互往回拉，相互推至下水的動作。這個練 習雖然不如比賽完全相同，但是運動員會在練習中找到比賽的感覺以及找到應對身體碰撞的方法。 Perhaps the only way to replicate the swim start is to practice it. In a pool, several triathletes in a single lane can all start off at the same time, making race-like body contact, even to the point of pulling each other back and pushing each other under the water. This practice will never be the same as a race, but it will give you a feeling of what it is like and how you will react to the body contact.
最後，請記住你是在參加鐵人三項，所以你要調整全程的節奏，不要用游泳的節奏來騎自行車， 也不要用騎自行車的節奏來跑步 - 適時調整節奏將幫助你贏得每次比賽。 Finally, please remember you are doing a triathlon, so pace yourself for the whole distance and don’t leave your bike in the water or your run on the bike—intelligent pacing will win every time.
文章出自- USA TRIATHLON