游泳轉換到自行車的訓練計畫 Swim to Bike Workouts
這一節提供了3個游泳轉換到自行車的訓練樣本計畫。主要訓練目標是讓運動員在游泳後能以更快的速度完成騎行，從而減少整體騎自行車的時間。一般來說，教練應該在訓練周期中的準備階段安排這些訓練課程。 Three samples of the swim to bike sessions are provided in this section. The prime objective of these sessions is to enable you to bike faster out of the swim in an effort to reduce overall bike time. Typically, these sessions should be conducted in the preparatory phase of your training cycle.
所有游泳轉換到自行車的訓練模塊都需要游泳池、自行車和運動鞋。將自行車和運動鞋放在離泳池 10碼或10米的地方，在車邊的地上放一塊大浴巾用來擦乾身體; 和正常比賽一樣擺放自己的裝備;完 成每組訓練後，花些時間整理自己的裝備，就像在進行第一轉換項目一樣，但要把整理時間縮至最短。 All swim to bike sessions requires a pool, your race bike, and a bike trainer. Set up the bike and bike trainer about 10 yards or meters from the poolside, with a large towel on the floor next to the bike for drying yourself. The equipment layout is exactly as you would normally do in a race. At the end of each set, take the time to layout your equipment again as if it were a proper T1 setup —but keep the time to the absolute minimum.
訓練從游泳轉換到自行車時，首先運動員要像正常速度訓練一樣先熱身。適當的熱身可以提高心 率、加快呼吸頻率和增加流向肌肉的血流量，從而讓身體為越來越激烈的運動做好準備。這意味著 運動員也要進行一些節奏訓練，在訓練接近尾聲時，稍微提高速度。此外，我不建議在這些訓練上 使用心率監測器，因為帶子可能會在水中散開並分散運動員的注意力，這樣就達不到提高上岸速度和提高騎自行車速度的訓練目的。 When you perform the following swim to bike workouts, first warm-up as you normally would for a speed-based session. A proper warm-up increases heart rate, breathing rate, and the flow of blood to the muscles to prepare the body for increasingly vigorous activity. This means you should include some tempo work, and as you near the end of your warm-up, increase the pace slightly. In addition, using a heart rate monitor for these sessions is not recommended, as the chest strap may become dislodged in the water and distract you from the prime purpose of the session, which is to increase your speed out of the water and onto the bike.
在訓練之前，運動員有必要知道自己在一定距離下游泳和騎自行車的基準時間。所以，在進入該訓練階段之前，運動員要對200米、400米和800米游泳和2千米、4千米和8千米騎行進行計時測試。在 訓練全程中，這些時間記錄將成為衡量訓練一致性和衡量總體進步的基本標準。 Before performing these sessions, it is necessary to know your benchmark times for the swim and bike distances, so before you enter this phase of your training, conduct time-trial sessions for the 200-meter, 400-meter, and 800-meter swim and time-trial sessions for the 2K, 4K, and 8K cycle. The times recorded will become your benchmarks to measure consistency throughout the session and to measure your overall improvement.
游泳到自行車轉換訓練1: 最大強度訓練 Swim to Bike Session 1: Maximal Intensity
最大強度，有時又稱為穩定狀態，指的是運動員在訓練全程中所能保持的努力水平。最大強度訓練的目的是讓運動員盡可能在每組訓練中達到接近於計時測試的努力水平。目標是讓運動員意識到身體在游泳後的感覺，這樣就可以盡量節約能量，從而使身心得到訓練。 Maximal intensity, sometimes called steady-state, is the level of effort you can maintain for the full duration of the whole session. The aim of this maximal intensity session is for you to push yourself as hard as possible in each set as close as you can to your maximal time-trial effort. The objective is for you to become aware of what your body will feel like coming out of the swim so you can then become as economical as possible, thus training the mind and body.
正常熱身，然後再完成5組以下訓練:完成200米游泳後，立刻以每分鐘高於100轉的速度完成2000 米的騎行。該訓練的轉換總次數為9次，總距離包含游泳1千米，騎行10K。總體訓練時間不長，但 如上所述，運動員要以能保持的最高速度完成全部訓練。為了獲得最佳效果，不要在兩組之間休 息。在第一組200米游泳和2000米騎行訓練中，以保持成績為目標，運動員必須要努力達到在之前計時測試中的最快速度。 Do your usual warm-up, and then do five sets of the following: 200-meter swim immediately followed by a 2K cycle at greater than 100 rpm. The total number of transitions for the session is nine, and the total distance covered is 1 kilometer for the swim and 10 kilometers for the bike. This is a short overall session, but, as mentioned, each set is conducted at your best sustainable speed for the whole session. To get maximum benefit, do not take a rest between sets. During the first set of 200-meter swimming and 2K cycling, you must try to equal the established fastest time-trial times you conducted before, with the aim of maintaining this performance.
很明顯，隨著訓練時間的延長，很多鐵人三項運動員的速度都會減慢，但運動員要記下自己疲勞程 度的變化。在運動時長不變或縮短的情況下，隨著自己的進步，運動員會發現總體疲勞程度降低。 在運動員變得更強時，還可以選擇增加訓練的組數。但要注意不要太多，因為該訓練對身體的消耗十分大，身體恢復時間比平常要長得多，會影響接下的訓練內容。 Clearly many triathletes will slow as the session continues, and you should record your fatigue as a percentage time increase. As you progress, you should notice an overall reduction of fatigue, seen as improved and maintained performance times. When you get stronger, you can increase the number of sets if you choose. Be careful of doing too many, though, because this is a very taxing session, and recovery will be much longer than normal, thus affecting the rest of your training modules.
游泳到自行車轉換訓練2: 乳酸耐受訓練 Swim to Bike Session 2: Lactate Tolerance
乳酸耐受訓練可以幫助運動員盡快從速度和力量的爆發中恢復過來，雖然鐵人三項運動員在比賽中 應盡量減少爆發性運動，但這是不可避免的，因為運動員必須要加大騎自行車的力量或跑得更快才 能超過其他運動員。經過適當的訓練，運動員可以提高運動心率以加強乳酸耐受能力。由於乳酸閾 是大量乳酸開始在血液中累積的臨界點，提高清除乳酸的能力意味著運動員可以在低於乳酸閾的情 況下以更高的強度騎行。通過強度略低於乳酸閾的訓練，可以訓練身體將乳酸轉化為慢肌纖維的燃 料，以清除血液中的乳酸。提高乳酸閾最有效的訓練是以略低於乳酸閾的強度進行較長時間的訓 練，每段訓練間稍作休息。在乳酸完全清除之前開始下一組高強度間歇訓練，繼續刺激身體分解乳酸。 Lactate tolerance training will help you recover more quickly from bursts of speed and power, and while triathletes should try to minimize this type of effort in a race, it is inevitable that you will need to increase power on the bike or run harder on a hill to pass other runners. By training properly, you can push your lactate tolerance up to a higher heart rate. Since LT is the point where significant amounts of lactate start to accumulate in the blood, improving your ability to clear lactate means you can ride harder before you reach LT. By training slightly below LT, you train your body to convert lactate to fuel for the slow-twitch muscles, thus clearing lactate from the bloodstream. The most effective training to raise LT is relatively long efforts just below LT, with only partial recovery between each effort. Starting the next hard interval before lactate is fully cleared continues the training stimulus to remove lactate.
正常熱身，然後再完成2組以下訓練: 完成400米游泳和以高95轉的速度完成4000米騎行。接著再完 成4組以下訓練: 完成200米游泳和以高於90轉的速度完成2000米的騎行。該訓練的轉換總次數為11次，游泳距離為1600米，自行車的距離為16K。 Do your usual warm-up, and then do two sets of the following: 400-meter swim and 4K cycle at greater than 95 rpm. This is followed by four sets of the following: 200-meter swim and 2K cycle at greater than 90 rpm. The total number of transitions for the session is eleven, and the total distance covered is 1,600 meters for the swim and 16 kilometers for the bike.
為了最大化訓練效果，運動員在兩組訓練之間不能休息，且游泳速度和自行車速度必須不低於計時 測試中最快速度的10%，訓練目標是保持成績。重申一遍，隨著時間百分比的增加，運動員要記錄 自己的疲勞程度。這個訓練可能會讓很多人感到身體不適、壓力倍增，因為它需要長期保持專注並 以漸進的方式進行，十分疲勞。一但運動員感覺良好，那可以增加訓練強度，如增加訓練組數，或增加以下訓練: 完成1組800米游泳並在每組訓練開始時以高於100轉的速度完成8000米騎行。 To get the most benefit from this session, there should be no rest between sets, and all swim and cycle reps must be within 10 percent of your fastest established time-trial times, with the aim of maintaining this performance. Again, record your fatigue as a percentage time increase. You can measure your overall improvement by noticing a reduction of fatigue, seen as improved and maintained performance times. This session can be physically uncomfortable and mentally taxing for many because it requires you to maintain your concentration for a long time and because it is very tiring in a progressive manner. Once you feel OK with this session, you can increase the effort by either adding more sets or adding the following: 1 × 800-meter swim and 8K cycle at greater than 100 rpm to the beginning of the set.
游泳到自行車轉換訓練3: 提高有氧運動能力 Swim to Bike Session 3: Aerobic Development
有氧運動能力十分重要。因為如果運動員的有氧運動越多(消耗氧氣的運動)，那麼運動效率就越高。 而且，有氧運動可以訓練身體分解並使用儲存的脂肪作為能量來源(脂肪是有氧能源系統的主要燃 料)。有氧運動的另一個好處是增加了心臟的每博輸出量，這意味著有更多的血液向肌肉輸送氧氣。 由於大多數鐵人三項運動員都傾向於以有氧的方式訓練和比賽，因此增加有氧運動能力訓練有利於提高運動的經濟性和效率。 Aerobic development is important because the more work you do aerobically, meaning with oxygen, then generally the more efficient you become. As an added bonus, aerobic work trains the body to break down and use stored fat for energy (fat is a primary source of fuel for the aerobic energy system). Another benefit of aerobic development is an increase in heart stroke volume, which means more blood pumping oxygen to the muscles. As most triathletes tend to train and race aerobically, it is useful to include an aerobic development session to increase your ability to be economical and efficient while exercising.
正常熱身，然後做2組以下訓練: 完成800米游泳和以高於100轉的速度完成8000米的騎行。該訓練轉換的總次數為3次，游泳距離為1600米，騎行距離為16K。 Do your usual warm-up, and then do two sets of the following: 800-meter swim and 8K bike at greater than 100 rpm. The total number of transitions for the session is three, and the total distance covered is 1,600 meters for the swim and 16 kilometers for the bike.
同樣，運動員不能在兩組之間休息。他應該記綠後段加速的時間，第二組的速度應不低於計時測試 中最快速度的5%。這項訓練時間長，疲憊。效率又不高。但是，通過有氧運動訓練，運動員可以建 立一個更強大的運動基礎。因為該訓練比較容易令人疲憊，所以運動員每月只需完成1次或2次。通過增加運動時間緩解疲憊是訓練的主要目標。 Again, no rest should be taken between sets. You should record negative split times, with the second set being within 5 percent of the fastest of your established time-trial times. This can be a long, tiring session with what may appear to be very little progression. However, by working on aerobic development, you are building a stronger base to work from. Because it can be tiring, this session should be completed once or twice per month only. Thus a reduction of fatigue by improving performance time is the main goal.