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自行車到跑步的轉換 (T2) Bike to Run Transition (T2)


自行車到跑步的轉換 (T2)

Bike to Run Transition (T2)


在距離相同的情況下,人們對鐵人三項跑步和單項跑步的體能消耗還存在著爭議。然而,絕大多數研究表示,高強度的自行車騎行對後續的跑步成績有不利影響,影響程度取決於鐵人三項運動員的體能水平,業餘鐵人三項運動員的成績幅度下降最大,精英鐵人三項運動員受影響較小。

A debate exists regarding the metabolic cost of running at the end of a triathlon compared with running the same distance in isolation. However, the vast majority of research suggests that high-intensity cycling will have a detrimental effect on subsequent running performance, with the effects dependent on the fitness level of the triathlete; the greatest decreases in performance are observed in recreational triathletes, and minimal effects are seen in elite triathletes.

為了抵消騎自行車對跑步成績的影響,研究人員提出了一些實用的策略,要想了解更多詳情,請參見班特利 (2008) 等人的研究。總體來說,鐵人三項運動員可以通過以下幾個方面來提升跑步成績:1. 盡可能跟在多名運動員後面(在允許跟騎的比賽中); 2. 採用80-100轉之間的自行車踏頻(但是要注意,自行車節奏因人而異 - 想想藍斯.阿姆斯特丹的自行車節奏 - 每次比賽,他都能以高於110轉的踏頻連續騎行幾個小時); 3. 在自行車最後階段的幾分鐘,集中精力,降低強度,為跑步做好準備。對於許多教練和生理學家來說,第2和第3點十分有效。當然,職業自行車運動員會聲稱每分鍾高於110轉的踏頻對生理有好處,但到了自行車比賽的最後5000米,鐵人三項運動員往往會搞垮自己。不管如何,鐵人三項的總體運動時間才是最重要的方面,而不單單只是自行車的運動時間。因此,為騎行出發、騎行結束和跑步出發分別制定最佳節奏戰術是項個人任務,運動員應該在日常訓練中完成這項任務。簡而言之,不要讓自行車影響跑步!高效率騎行比費盡力氣的騎法要好。

To offset the impact of cycling on running performance, researchers have come up with a few practical strategies; see Bentley et al. (2008) for further details. In summary, triathletes may be able to improve running performance by (1) drafting behind as many athletes as is practical (in draft-legal events); (2) adopting a cycling cadence of between 80-100 rpm (note, however, that cadence is a very personal matter—just consider the cycling cadence of Lance Armstrong (above 110 rpm for several hours at a time), for example—but many in triathlon will find a slightly higher cadence is acceptable); and (3) concentrating on reducing the effort during the final minutes of the cycling stage to prepare for the run. Points 2 and 3 really strike home for many coaches and physiologists. Pro cyclists will of course state the physiological benefits of spinning at greater than 110 rpm, but all too often, triathletes will trash themselves on the last 5K of the cycling discipline when coming in for the home stretch. However, the global performance time of a triathlon is the most important aspect, not the bike time. As such, establishing optimal pacing strategies for the start of the bike, the end of the bike, and the start of the run is an individual task and should be done in training on a regular basis. To put it as simply as possible: Don’t leave your run on the bike! And spinning is better than crunching big gears.

為了強調這一點,針對奧林匹克標準距離鐵人三項比賽,各項研究試圖為訓練有素的鐵人三項運動員制定出最佳初始節奏戰術。10名男子鐵人三項運動員以任意速度完成了10K的對照組跑步,並以隨機順序完成三次鐵人三項計時測試。在時間測試中,規定游泳和自行車的速度與第一次鐵人三項相同,而在第1千米的跑步中,速度分別比對照組快5%、慢5%、慢10% ; 實驗要求運動員以自由的速度盡快完成剩下的9千米; 至於10千米的整體跑步表現,速度慢5%的跑步成績明顯快於速度快5%和慢10%的成績 (p < 0.05)。值得注意的是,在第1千米結束時,相比另外兩種速度,加速5%的戰術導致了更高的攝氧量、通氣量、心率和乳酸水平。在5千米和9.5千米後,減速5%的戰術會使這些指標更高 (p < 0.05)。

To emphasize this point, various studies tried to determine the best pacing strategy during the initial phase of an Olympic-distance triathlon for highly trained triathletes. Ten male triathletes completed a 10K control run at a free pace as well as three individual time-trial triathlons in a randomized order. In the time trials, the swimming and cycling speeds imposed were identical to the first triathlon performed, and the first run kilometer was done alternately 5 percent faster, 5 percent slower, and 10 percent slower than in the control run. The triathletes were instructed to finish the remaining 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) as quickly as possible at a self-selected pace. The 5 percent slower run resulted in a significantly faster overall 10K performance than the 5 percent faster and 10 percent slower runs, respectively (p < 0.05). Of note, the 5 percent faster strategy resulted in higher values for oxygen uptake, ventilation, heart rate, and blood lactate at the end of the first kilometer than the two other conditions. After 5 and 9.5 kilometers, these values were higher for the 5 percent slower run (p < 0.05).

這一項出色且控制良好的研究表示,與流行的觀點相反,在奧林匹克標準距離鐵人三項的第1千米慢跑實際上可以提高10千米的整體表現。最近,隨著全球定位系統手錶的發展,即使鐵人三項比賽中沒有提供距離標記,鐵人三項運動員也可以很容易地得知分段時間和分段距離。當然只有運動員事先為特定的賽事制定好成績標準,這項技術才能得到最好的使用。因此,要想使這些數據發揮最大效果,鐵人三項運動員要比最快速度慢5%的速度完成分段距離。

This excellent and well-controlled study demonstrates that contrary to popular belief, running slower during the first kilometer of an Olympic-distance triathlon may actually improve overall 10K performance. With the recent advances in global positioning system (GPS) watches, split times and distances are easily available for triathletes to take advantage of even if no distance markers are provided during the triathlon. This technology is best used only if the triathlete has previously established performance standards for that particular event. Thus, for these data to be most effective, the triathlete must know what split time equals 5 percent slower than his maximal effort.


文章出處- USA TRIATHLON

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