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與運動員建立深度連結,成就運動表現的科學與藝術



與運動員建立深度連結,成就運動表現的科學與藝術


知名人際關係大師戴爾.卡內基(Dale Carnegie)告訴我們,關係的建立是從對他人感興趣開始。如果認同是幫助運動員達到目標的關鍵因素,那麼建立關係就是達到認同的關鍵因素。

Dale Carnegie taught us that relationship building starts through first demonstrating interest in others. If buy-in is critical to working with athletes to accomplish their goals, it follows then that relationships are critical to buy-in.


關係 (教練&運動員)

Relationships (Coach&Athlete)

關係有兩種意涵,第一個是兩個人共同努力來達成目標,第二個則是兩個人之間相互瞭解(Knowles,Shanmugan,Lorimet,2015)。在運動領域中,這是長遠運動表現成功所需的「社交工具」,因為正向的關係可以強化這個體驗,但負面的關係則會阻礙進步的發展(Knowles,Shanmugan,Lorimer,2015)。索菲亞.喬伊特(Sophia Jowett)博士,主要研究的領域為人際關係對運動教練的影響,她相信教練與運動員之間的關係,可以透過成功與效果這兩個要素來形成。成功就是技巧訓練和競賽成績,效果則是專注於個人滿足和獎賞連結。關係是我們影響他人和他人影響我們的根基,建立關係的能力是能否在社會生存的關鍵因素。許多演化心理學家專家指出,我們能成為食物鏈頂端是因為能夠彼此合作。如果一個人或部落捕獲一頭獵物,他們會與他人分享這美味的食物,因為未來他們也需要別人的分享。關係是我們生存的關鍵。如果你有關注運動文化,會發現這並沒有多大差別,儘管你到最近的好市多超市就可以得到超大份量的食物。教練與運動員、球隊、甚至組織之間,成功的關鍵就是良好的關係。

A relationship includes both the interdependence of two individuals working together to achieve a common goal(s) and a level of understanding between them (Knowles, Shanmugam, Lorimer 2015). In the sporting realm, it has been described as a “social vehicle” for the often long road to performance success, with positive relationships enhancing this experience and negative relationships prolonging or disrupting both progression and personal development (Knowles, Shanmugam, Lorimer 2015). Dr. Sophia Jowett, whose primary research revolves around the confluence of interpersonal relationships within the worlds of sport and coaching, believes that the relationship between a coach and an athlete can be conceptualized by the elements of both success and effectiveness (2005). Success relates to skill development and competition results, and effectiveness focuses upon personal satisfaction and the development of a rewarding bond. Relationships serve as the foundation of the influence that we have on others and that they have on us, while a humans’ ability to form relationships was critical to our species’ survival in the hunter-gatherer days. Many evolutionary psychologists posit that our ability to cooperate helped elevate us to the top of the food chain. If one person or tribe made a big kill, they would share it with others because in the future they might depend on others to share their food with them. Bonds were key to our survival. If you follow sporting culture you realize that this hasn’t changed much, despite not having to go any further than the nearest COSTCO for a super-sized surplus of food. The success of individual coach-athlete relationships, teams, and even governing bodies depends largely on relationships.


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