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勝利的秘訣在於心理訓練: 頂尖游泳運動員的七個心態思維習慣

Updated: Mar 1, 2023



勝利的秘訣在於心理訓練: 頂尖游泳運動員的七個心態思維習慣 (The Secret to Victory Lies in Mental Training: Seven Mindset Habits of Successful Top Swimmers)


MINDSET 致勝心態 作為雄心勃勃的游泳運動員致勝心態基礎的七項原則,並對游泳運動員及 其教練如何發展和使用這些原則進行說明。雄心勃勃的游泳運動員在準備比賽的過程中尋求優勢。

這意味著如果你想在你的運動的最高水平上競爭,你應該採取一種致勝心態。游泳運動員個人可以遵循七項原則來展示這種實現精英表現的方法。

1. 做到最好 2. 堅持不懈 3. 成長心態 4. 獲取邊際效益

5. 基本技能 6. 集中精力 7. 反彈 (從挫折中反彈的復原力)

四屆奧運會金牌得主Al Oerter說:”我並不是為了打敗世界,我只是為了 做到我的絕對最好。 第一條原則是做到最好—無論在什麼階段,這意味著在泳池內外都要做最好的自己。

致勝心態的第二個原則是堅持不懈。

朋友拉里-埃里森(2007年億萬富翁 美洲杯贊助商)和拉斐爾-納達爾之間的一場網球比賽結束時,納達爾問 埃里森他成功的秘訣。埃里森開始了長篇大論的回答,講述了創新如何戰 勝普通智慧,以及突破傳統方法的必要性。然後他停下來說:'忘記我剛 才說的一切。答案很簡單。我從不放棄。"(摘自《億萬富翁與機械師》 第185頁,Guthrie, J.(2013)。無論游泳者面臨的挑戰是技術、戰略、身 體還是心理,在追求目標的過程中付出努力是至關重要的。努力工作並找 到進步的方法是游泳成功的重要因素。

致勝心態的第三個原則是使用成長心態。

傳奇的大學籃球教練約翰-伍登這樣總結成長型心態:”失敗不是致命的, 但失敗後的改變可能是致命的。精英游泳需要出色的技術、有效的比賽策 略和訓練有素的體能。這些都需要適應,因此,對於一個尋求在游泳冠軍 賽中發揮最佳水平的人來說,改變是不可避免的,也是無法避免的。

第四條原則是集中精力將你所做的每一件事以分數的形式改進,以匯總整體表現。 大衛-佈雷斯福德爵士(Sir David Brailsford)是自行車運動的先驅,在成 功實施1%學說方面無出其右,他這樣總結第四條原則:"如果你把所有可 能影響自行車運動成績的東西都分解開來,絕對是你能想到的所有東西, 你把每件小事都改進1%,當你把它們集中起來,你的成績會有相當大的 提高。游泳運動員個人應該審視自己,觀察周圍的情況,找出所有可能的 領域,他們可以略微改善,以便最大限度地發揮集體收益的可能潛力,幫 助他們游出最高水平的表現。

致勝心態的第五個原則是刻意練習。傑夫-科爾文(Geoff Colvin)是暢銷 書《天賦被高估了》的作者。世界級表演者與其他人的真正區別是什麼》 一書中寫道:"如果你設定一個成為業務專家的目標,你會立即開始做各 種你現在不做的事情。這句話定義了刻意練習的品質:努力、專注、反饋 和目標設定。游泳運動員應該檢查他們的目標,集中精力做最重要的事 情,以便讓他們游出最好的成績,並獲得反饋來驗證這些假設或改變他們 的觀點。


致勝心態的第六條原則是專注於你正在做的事情。

網球冠軍塞雷娜-威廉 姆斯(Serena Williams)將這種行為定義為 "當有人在街上開槍的時候打 網球,這就是專注"。雄心勃勃的游泳運動員將面臨一系列吸引注意力和 專注力的因素,並阻止他們達到自己的目標。在壓力下,堅持不懈地專注 於當下的任務,對於游泳冠軍中的精英選手來說是必要的。

致勝心態的最後一個原則是表現出復原力,從挫折中反彈。

復原力方面的主要作者阿爾-西伯特博士這樣解釋這個術語。復原力意味著能夠從一開始可能感到完全無法承受的生活發展中反彈出來。在體育運動中,失望是 不可避免的,但一個人如何應對失望,不讓它干擾他或她對卓越的追求, 對這個人未來在游泳方面的成功至關重要。

如果這七條原則被一個人奉為思維習慣及價值觀,你就會看到一個充滿活 力、朝氣蓬勃、身體健康、全身心投入、以目標為導向的游泳運動員每天 都在為自己的運動取得競爭優勢而努力。



MINDSET

The seven principles that act as a foundation for the competitive mindset of an ambitious swimmer and provide descriptions of how the principles can be developed and used by swimmers and their coaches.


Ambitious swimmers are seeking the edge in their preparation for competition. This means if you want to compete at the highest levels of your sport, you should adopt a competitive mindset. There are seven principles that an individual swimmer can follow to demonstrate this approach to achieving elite performance:


1. Do Your Best

2. Persistence

3. Growth Mindset

4. Making Marginal Gains

5. Fundamental Skills

6. Concentrating

7. Bouncing Back


Four-time Olympic Gold medallist Al Oerter said, 'I did not set out to beat the world; I just set out to do my absolute best.' Principle number one is to do your best - no matter what the phase is, this means being the best version of yourself in and out of the swimming pool.


The second principle of a competitive mindset is persistence. A game of tennis between friends Larry Ellison (Billionaire America's Cup sponsor in 2007) and Rafael Nadal ended with Nadal asking Ellison about the secrets of his success. Ellison began a long answer about how innovation beats common wisdom and about the need to break through traditional approaches. Then he stopped and said, 'Forget everything I just said. The answer is simple. I never give up.' (Excerpt from page 185, The Billionaire and the Mechanic, Guthrie, J. (2013). Whether the challenge faced by the swimmer is technical, strategic, physical, or mental, giving an effort in pursuit of your goals is critical. Working hard and finding a way to progress is a vital ingredient of success in swimming.


The third principle of a competitive mindset is to use a growth mindset. Legendary college basketball coach John Wooden summed up the growth mindset this way: 'Failure is not fatal, but failing to change might be.' Elite swimming requires excellent technique, effective race strategy, and well-trained physical capabilities. These all require adaptation; therefore, change is in- evitable and unavoidable for an individual seeking to perform at his or her best in championship swimming.


The fourth principle is to concentrate on improving everything you do by fractions to aggregate overall performance. Sir David Brailsford, a pioneer in cycling and peerless in the successful implementation of the 1 percent doctrine, sums up the fourth principle this way: 'If you broke down everything that could impact on a cycling performance, absolutely everything you could think of, and you improved every little thing by 1 percent, when you clump it all together you get quite a significant improvement in performance.' Individual swimmers should look at themselves, observe around them and identify all the possible areas they could improve marginally in order to maximize the possible potential of the collective gains they could make to help them swim at their highest level of performance.


The fifth principle oft h e competitive mindset is deliberate practice. Geoff Colvin, author of the bestselling book Talent is Overrated: What Really Separates World-Class Performers from Everybody Else, wrote, 'If you set a goal of becoming an expert in your business, you would immediately start doing all kinds of things you don't do now.' This quote defines the qualities of deliberate practice: effort, focus, feedback, and goal setting. Swimmers should check their goals, concentrate on the things that are most important for them to swim at their best, and get feedback to validate these assumptions or alter their views.


The sixth principle that shows a competitive mindset is to concentrate on what you are doing. Champion tennis player Serena Williams defines the behavior as 'playing tennis when somebody is shooting a gun down the street; that's concentration.’ The ambitious swimmer will face a range of factors drawing away concentration and focus and preventing them from reaching his or her goals. Relentlessly focusing at the moment, on the task at hand, under pressure is necessary for the elite swimmer in championship swimming.


The final principle of a competitive mindset is to show resilience and bounce back from setbacks. Dr. Al Siebert, a leading author on resiliency, explains the term like this: 'resiliency means being able to bounce back from life developments that may feel totally overwhelming at first.’


Disappointment is inevitable in sports, but how an individual copes with it and does not allow it to interfere with his or her pursuit of excellence is critical to that person's future success in swimming. If the seven principles were lived by an individual, you would expect to see a vital, vibrant, healthy, engaged, and relentless goal-oriented swimmer working every day to achieve a competitive advantage in his or her sport.


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