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如何成為優質的全能游泳選手?做好『心肺訓練』是關鍵!


根據研究,在經過高品質的心肺訓練的累積,偉大的世界金牌游泳選手「麥可.菲爾普斯肺活量達到一萬五,乳酸分泌卻是正常人的一半,所以不太容易疲勞。」

大多數耐力運動員的心率約為 40bpm。當菲爾普斯摘下游泳鏡在陸地上放鬆時,他的靜息心率穩定在 38bpm,這意味著與競爭對手相比,他的心臟向肌肉泵血的效率更高。

Most endurance athletes clocking in around 40bpm. When Phelps pulled his swim goggles off and relaxed on dryland, his resting heart rate was a steady 38bpm, meaning that his heart was more efficient at pumping blood to his muscles than his competitors.

乳酸能力:也許菲爾普斯最令人印象深刻的是他的身體回收乳酸的能力。 2003 年的數據洩露表明,在他創下 100 米蝶式世界紀錄後,他血液中的乳酸水平僅為微不足道的 5.6 毫摩爾,這個數字剛好是其他精英游泳運動員的一半,更不用說其他普通人群了。

Lactate capacity: Perhaps most impressive about Phelps is his body’s ability to recycle lactic acid. In 2003 stats were leaked that showed after his world record swims in the 100m fly the lactate levels in his blood were at a paltry 5.6 millimoles, a figure that was just over half of the other elite swimmers, never mind the rest of the general population.


心率訓練區

Heart rate training zones

心率訓練區通常用於針對不同方面的訓練(MHR 是最大心率)。

Heart rate training zones are commonly used to target different aspects of training (MHR is maximum heart rate).


區域 1 = MHR 的 65%(恢復、熱身和冷身)

區域 2 = 65% -72% 的 MHR(耐力)

區域 3 = MHR 的 73% -80%(高有氧運動)

區域 4 = MHR 的 84%-90%(乳酸閾值)

區域 5 = 91% -100% MHR(短衝和無氧)


ZONE 1 = 65% of MHR (recovery, warm up & cool down)

ZONE 2 = 65% -72% of MHR (endurance events)

ZONE 3 = 73% -80% of MHR (high aerobic activity)

ZONE 4 = 84%-90% of MHR (lactate threshold)

ZONE 5 = 91% -100% of MHR (sprinting and anaerobic)

區域 1 = 最大心率的 65%

ZONE 1 = 65% of MHR

動恢復(也稱為乳酸閾值 (LT) 的 65% -73%)

ACTIVE RECOVERY (also known as 65% -73% of Lactate Threshold (LT))

在第 1 區,您正在燃燒脂肪以獲取能量。 這應該是您訓練恢復鍛煉、熱身和放鬆以及遠距離輕鬆訓練的區域。

In zone 1 you are burning fat for energy. This should be the zone you train in for recovery workouts, warm-up and cool down, and over-distance easy sessions.


這是為鐵人三項賽或 10K 游泳等超長距離比賽建立耐力的最佳區域,應該是您訓練的重要組成部分。 它促進遠程訓練中高強度和糖原消耗的恢復。 在這個區域訓練 1-3 小時,你會提高你的脂肪燃燒能力。 完成這些訓練後,你會感到飢餓。 第 1 區的訓練對我們的心血管系統至關重要,它可以讓我們的身體將氧氣輸送到肌肉並從肌肉中排出二氧化碳。 在這個區域進行的訓練越多,我們就會變得更有效率。因此,你的大部分訓練都應該在此區域內進行。

This is the best zone to build up endurance for ultra-distance races such as Ironman or 10K swims and should be an important part of your training. It promotes recovery from high intensity and glycogen depleting over distance training. Train in this zone for 1-3 hours and you will improve your fat-burning ability. You will feel hungry after these sessions. Training in zone 1 is paramount for our cardiovascular systems allowing our bodies to transport oxygen to and remove carbon dioxide from the muscles. The more training in this zone to more efficient we become. Most of your training should therefore be in this Zone.


區域 2 = 最大心率的 65% -72%

ZONE 2 = 65% -72% of MHR


有氧(也稱為乳酸閾值 (LT) 的 75% -85%)

AEROBIC (also known as 75% -85% of Lactate threshold (LT))


在這個區域訓練,你將使用脂肪和糖原(碳水化合物)的混合物作為能量。

Train in this zone and you will use a mixture of fat and glycogen (carbohydrates) for energy.


長時間游泳時留在第 2 區可以通過增加線粒體和毛細血管的大小和數量來提高輸送氧氣的能力。

Staying in zone 2 for long swims improves the ability to transport oxygen by increasing the size and number of mitochondria and capillaries.


你的生理還將學習更多地使用脂肪作為儲存的燃料來源。

You will also learn to use fat more as a stored fuel source.


這區是屬於中等節奏的耐力游泳。

This should be moderate-paced endurance swimming.


通常在這個區域訓練 30-90 分鐘。

Train in this zone for 30-90 minutes.


區域 3 = 最大心率的 73% -80%

ZONE 3 = 73% -80% of MHR


臨界點(也稱為乳酸閾值 (LT) 的 85%-95%)

THRESHOLD (also known as 85%-95% of Lactate threshold (LT))


在這個區域訓練,會消耗大部分糖原,提高你燃燒碳水化合物的能力。 這對 1500m 游泳有很大的好處。

Train in this zone and use up mostly glycogen and improve your ability to burn up carbohydrates. This is good for 1500m swimming.


訓練持續時間應為 5-15 分鐘間歇及同樣時間的動恢復或是 20-60 分鐘的臨界線高強度訓練。

Training duration should be 5-15 minute intervals with the same time as recovery or 20-60 minute CONTINUOUS red line hard efforts.


區域 4 = 最大心率的 84%-90%

ZONE 4 = 84%-90% of MHR


乳酸閾值(又名乳酸閾值的 95% -105%)

LACTATE THRESHOLD (aka 95% -105% of Lactate threshold)


這是你在準備比賽期間訓練的重要區域,因為它可以提高你應對乳酸的能力,並會提高你的乳酸閾值。 從這種類型的訓練中恢復可能需要 72 小時。

This is an important zone to train in during your build-up to racing as it improves your ability to cope with lactate acid and will raise your lactate threshold. It can take 72 hours to recover from this type of training.


訓練範例 – 10到12組 x 100m 重複組加上每組 50m 緩慢動恢復允許心率在下一組之前降至最大值的 70%。

Training example – 10-12 x 100m repetitions with 50m active slow recovery allowing HR to drop to 70% of max before repeating.


目的是增加每搏輸出量和最大有氧能力,提高乳酸耐受性,也稱為緩衝能力。

The objective is to increase stroke volume and maximal aerobic capacity and improve lactate tolerance also known as buffering capacity ability.


如果乳酸產生的速度超過排除的量,就很難長時間保持這種高強度水平。

If the rate of lactate being produced exceeds the amount being removed it is hard to maintain this level of intensity for very long.


區域 5 = 最大心率的 91% -100%

ZONE 5 = 91% -100% of MHR


最大攝氧量(又名乳酸閾值的 105%)

VO₂max (aka 105% of Lactate Threshold)


在第 5 區時,你的無氧訓練會非常刻苦。 艱苦的短時間衝刺將增加你的最大攝氧量。

When in zone 5 you are training very hard anaerobically. Hard short efforts will increase your V02 MAX.


訓練時間應該是密集的 30-60 秒間歇,間隔休息 60 -150 秒,直到你完全恢復。

Duration of training should be intensive 30-60 seconds intervals with 60 -150 seconds rest until you are completely recovered.


目的是增加無氧能力和緩衝能力。

The objective is to increase anaerobic capacity and buffering capacity.

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