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如何有效提升你的游泳訓練質量?



如何有效提升你的游泳訓練質量?


學習任何一種技能從初學到專業都要經過三個階段,一是高效的輸入(Input), 二是高效輸出(Output), 三是不斷地高效重複!


運動神經科學家研究表示:一個運動技術必須刻意且專注的練習才能建立穩定的神經迴路,例如當你在練習時,腦袋放空,或在想著等等要去品味什麼樣的美食,這時的狀態則是無效狀態,既會浪費時間成本也容易建立錯誤動作的神經迴路。相反的,如果刻意且專注的練習,你會自我檢視每一次的動作基準不斷調整,剛開始學習新技能的時候會經歷大量的錯誤,但由於刻意練習的狀態,你的錯誤將會越來越少,正確的動作會越來越多,慢慢建立起穩定的神經迴路。


運動心理學家表示:你的心態往往影響著你的訓練成效,如果該做的事「感覺」不想去做,就要讓意念掌管你的心。這個忠告很好,但不容易做到。擁有成熟且精湛技術的人通常是吃了許多苦,他們吃過苦,熬過來了,通過了考驗。


練習你的''完美練習‘’

Practicing Your "Perfect Practice"

by Dr. Alan Goldberg//Contributor


大多數認真的游泳運動員每週的練習量幾乎相同。為什麼這些運動員中只有少數運動員的發展上取得了巨大的進步,而其他大部分游泳運動員的進步卻很小?

Most serious swimmers practice pretty much the same amount every week. Why is it that only a few of these athletes make tremendous gains in their development while a large proportion of other swimmers only improve a small amount?


答案不在於你在一週內進行了多少次練習或練習了多少碼,答案在於你在這些練習和碼中投入了什麼。具體來說,決定你從練習中得到多少的因素是你的訓練質量。提高你的訓練質量,你就會克服你的弱點,增強你的優勢並成功地朝著你的目標前進。然而,如果你不知道你的訓練質量,那麼你可能很努力練習,但練習的方式不聰明!因此,作為競技游泳運動員的發展將受到嚴重的阻礙!

The answer doesn't lie in how many practices you go to or how many yards you chock up over the week, the answer lies in what you put into those practices and yards. Specifically, what determines how much you'll get out of practice is the quality of your training. Make the quality of your training high and you'll overcome your weaknesses, strengthen your strengths and move successfully towards your goals. However, if you're unaware of the quality of your training, then you may be working hard, but NOT working smart! As a result, your development as a competitive swimmer will be seriously hampered!


是什麼決定了你的訓練質量?就是了解並經常使用“完美練習法”(刻意練習)的概念。‘’完美練習法‘’的概念是將針對您的弱點(無論是精神上的還是生理上的弱點)的特定情況和技能融入你的日常練習中。‘’完美練習法‘’側重於你在過去可能讓你遇到在比賽中表現不佳的情況。通過在訓練中直接針對你的精神和/或生理弱點,為克服它們並將這些弱點變成強項做好最好的準備。

What determines the quality of your training? Understanding and regularly using the concept of “perfect practice.” Perfect practice is the concept of integrating into your daily practices specific situations and skills that target your weaknesses whether they are mental or physical ones. The perfect practice focuses on the situations that you'll run into in races that in the past may have thrown you off track. By directly targeting your mental and/or physical vulnerabilities in training, you will be best preparing yourself to overcome them and turn those weaknesses into strengths.


舉個例子。最常見的是,精神上的錯誤通常會在比賽中引發身體問題。比方說,每當游 200米 和/或 400米 自由式時,我傾向在 200 米中的第三個 50 米和 400 米中的第三個 100 米上速度下降。導致這種減速的原因是當我變成這些比賽的第三部分,然後我開始思考並專注於我的疲勞感。我一直在想我身體的哪個部位疼痛了,以及在這些事情的最後階段我會感覺有多糟糕。當我開始思考並專注自己有多累時,會感到緊張,自己的划水時間縮短,失去了對水的抓力,導致自己放慢了速度。

Let me give you an example. Most frequently, mental mistakes will usually trigger physical problems in your racing. Let's say that whenever I swim the 200 and/or 400 Free, I tend to fall off the pace on the third 50 in the 200 and the third 100 in the 400. What causes this slow down is that I start feeling tired as I turn into the third part of these races and then I start thinking about and focusing on my fatigue. I dwell on where in my body I hurt and how much badly I'll feel in the last leg of these events. When I start thinking about and focusing on how tired I am, I get nervous, my stroke shortens and I lose my grip on the water, causing me to slow way down.


由於在壓力下快速前進就是專注於我的運動感覺,因此我在整場比賽中的任務,尤其是在關鍵的第三個 50 米或 100米,是將注意力集中在水中運動的感覺上。

Since going fast under pressure is all about staying focused on the feel of my movement, my task throughout the whole race, but especially during that crucial third 50 or 100, is to keep my concentration on the feel of my movement through the water.


這是如何運作?假設我是剛剛說的那種游泳者,只要我能感覺到每次划水拉了多少水,我就會游得很快。正因為如此,我在比賽中的任務,尤其是在第三個 50米 或 100米 ,將注意力集中在每次划水上,感覺手上和前臂上抱大量的水。當這樣做時,我將能夠從疼痛和不適中轉移自己的注意力,並保持良好的節奏。

How would this work? Let's say that I'm the kind of swimmer who goes fast whenever I can feel how much water I'm pulling with each stroke. Because of that, my job during my race and especially during that third 50 or 100 is to narrow my focus on each stroke to that feeling of pulling a lot of water across my hand and down my forearm. When I do this, I will be able to distract myself from the pain and discomfort and maintain a good pace.


那時知道這一點,對我來說“完美的練習”將需要在練習期間尋找任何所有的機會,在那裡我開始與氧債的痛苦和疲勞鬥爭。當我開始疼痛並感到疲倦時,想像自己處於比賽的第三個 50米 或 100米,並練習更加專注於拉了多少水。這意味著會練習意識到自己的注意力轉向思考自己的不適並立即“重置”動作的感覺的注意力。這樣就可以訓練自己更有效地處理在第三個 50 米或 100 米內分心和失去節奏的老問題!

Knowing this then, “perfect practice” for me would entail looking for any and all opportunities during practice where I start to struggle with the pain and fatigue of oxygen debt. When I start to hurt and feel tired, I want to imagine myself in the third 50 or 100 of my race and practice focusing more intently on how much water I'm pulling. This would mean that I would practice being aware of the instant my focus goes to thinking about my discomfort and immediately “resetting” my focus on the feel of my movements. That way I can train myself to much more effectively deal with my repetitive problem of getting distracted and falling off the pace during that third 50 or 100!


‘’完美的練習‘’就是利用你平時日常的訓練來“重現”比賽中遇到的問題,並練習有效地管理它們。專注於這些具體細節,無論是身體上的還是精神上的,都會使你的練習質量更高,從而更有效率地幫助你實現目標!

Perfect practice is all about using your training sessions to “recreate” the problems you've been having in races and practice effectively managing them. It’s focusing on these specific details whether they’re physical or mental that will make your practices higher quality and therefore much more productive in helping you reach your goals!



USA SWIMMING


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