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成長型思維:你游泳成功的秘密武器(Growth Mindset: Your Secret Weapon for Swimming Success)


Why Growth Mindset is Important for Swimmers?


A growth mindset is crucial for swimmers because swimming is a sport that requires long-term effort and continuous learning. Through a growth mindset, swimmers can see challenges and failures not as endpoints but as opportunities for learning and improvement. This mindset allows them to keep improving their skills, optimizing strategies, and maintaining sustained motivation and resilience, which are vital for a high-intensity and technically demanding sport like swimming.


For anyone involved in sport, as an athlete, coach, commentator, or fan, the concept of talent is almost always the defining character that we look for. Of course, that is a hugely important trait, but it doesn’t tell us what makes the difference between winning and losing when two athletes of similar talent compete or why somebody with less talent might come out on top.

答案往往在於運動員的心理方法。成功不僅僅在於身體素質,還在於運動員對勝利的渴望,以及開放心態以提高技能、處理錯誤和不害怕失敗。人們常常認為,運動員只需具備天賦,這就足以發揮他們的潛力。然而,很明顯,心態在體育運動中起著重要作用。運動員的心態可以被證明是成功的一個主要因素這一觀點是從史丹佛大學心理學家卡羅爾·德韋克(Carol Dweck)在《心態:成功的新心理學》一書中發展而來的,該書著眼於我們的心態的力量,以及如何使我們的成功成為可能。最基本的改變可以對我們的生活產生深遠的影響。

The answer often lies in the mental approach of athletes. Success is not just about physical attributes but the desire of an athlete to win and also to open their mind to improving their skills, dealing with mistakes, and not fearing failure. Too often the belief was that an athlete simply needed to be a natural talent and this would be enough to fulfil their potential. However, it has become abundantly clear that mindset in sports plays a significant role. This notion that the mindset of an athlete can prove to be a major factor in success was developed from the work of Stanford psychologist Carol Dweck in Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, which looks at the power of our mental attitude and how even making the most basic alterations can have a profound effect on our lives.


  • 由於害怕失敗而迴避挑戰

  • 相信技能是與生俱來的

  • 輕易放棄

  • 努力被認為是不必要的

  • 感到沮喪或忽視反饋或批評

  • 因他人的成功而感到威脅

  • 感覺堅持不會有任何好處


  • 相信技能是通過努力磨練出來的

  • 迎接挑戰

  • 努力改進

  • 從其他運動員身上汲取靈感

  • 尋求反饋/批評以改進

  • 相信挫折可以幫助你學習

In essence, an athlete with a fixed mindset believes that their skills cannot be changed, and drawbacks can be summed up as follows:

  • Avoids challenges due to fear of failure

  • Believes skill is something you are born with

  • Gives up easily

  • The effort is seen as unnecessary

  • Gets frustrated or ignores feedback or criticism

  • Feels threatened by the success of others

  • Feels perseverance will not be any benefit

It is accepted that a growth mindset opens up an athlete to the possibility of improving as they are not afraid of making mistakes. A growth mindset helps an athlete to:-

  • Believe skills are fine-tuned from hard work

  • Embrace challenge

  • Strive to improve

  • Take inspiration from other athletes

  • Seek feedback/criticism to improve

  • Believe that setbacks help you learn


Watch the language you use.


Swimmers must be mindful of their self-talk to avoid negative self-suggestion because our thoughts and language can significantly impact our emotions and actions. Negative self-suggestions, such as "I can't finish this training" or "I'll never be as good as they are," can undermine confidence, limit potential, and decrease performance.


On the contrary, positive and constructive self-talk can boost confidence, inspire motivation, and assist in overcoming challenges. By shifting the language from negative to positive, such as "I will strive to complete this training" or "I can learn and improve to get closer to their level," athletes can inspire themselves and drive their growth and progress.


Growth Mindset in action


The growth mindset emphasizes starting with action because positive thinking alone is not enough to bring about real change or improvement. Thoughts and actions must be aligned, as action is the crucial way to achieve goals and enhance skills. When we face challenges or difficulties, by adopting a proactive problem-solving attitude through action, we can learn, adapt, and grow from the experience. Additionally, the action itself is a learning process, as we can reflect and learn from our behaviors, which helps cultivate and reinforce a growth mindset.


Building habits


One of the most effective ways to develop a habit is by increasing the frequency of an action, as habit formation stems from our brain trying to manage repeated tasks in the most efficient way. When we repeatedly perform a task, it becomes increasingly automated and shifts to the basal ganglia, the part of the brain that controls habits.


Therefore, increasing the frequency of action equates to increasing the chances for the brain to convert that task into a habit. This is why it's commonly suggested to start small and do a little bit consistently every day when trying to establish a new habit. Not only can this lower the barrier to getting started, but it can also help us turn these actions into habits more quickly.


Learn how to learn


Learning and practicing deliberately are very important for a swimmer's technical growth.

"刻意練習"是一種專門針對提高技能和能力的訓練方法。這並不只是重複或增加練習的時間,而是要具有明確的目標、主動尋求反饋,並專注於改進個人的弱點。這個概念由心理學家安德斯·艾利克森(Anders Ericsson)提出,並在他的著作《刻意練習》中詳細介紹。


  1. 專注:進行刻意練習需要高度的注意力和專注。它並不是無意識地重複動作,而是需要心理上的主動參與。

  2. 明確的目標:刻意練習需要具體和明確的目標,這樣才能清楚知道需要改進的地方。

  3. 反饋:尋求並接受即時反饋是刻意練習的重要部分,因為這可以幫助人們理解自己的表現和需要改進的地方。

  4. 脫離舒適區:刻意練習通常要求人們嘗試那些他們還不擅長的技能,這樣才能確保他們的技能得到改進和提高。

"Deliberate practice" is a specific kind of training to improve skills and abilities. It's not just about repetition or spending more time practicing, but involves having explicit goals, actively seeking feedback, and concentrating on improving individual weaknesses. This concept was introduced by psychologist Anders Ericsson and detailed in his book, "Peak: Secrets from the New Science of Expertise."

Here are some critical characteristics of deliberate practice:

  1. Focused: Deliberate practice requires a high level of attention and focus. It's not about mindlessly repeating actions but involves mental engagement.

  2. Explicit Goals: Deliberate practice requires specific and clear goals so that one knows precisely what needs to be improved.

  3. Feedback: Seeking and receiving immediate feedback is a critical part of deliberate practice, as it helps individuals understand their performance and areas of improvement.

  4. Out of Comfort Zone: Deliberate practice typically involves attempting skills that one is not yet proficient at, ensuring growth and improvement.

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