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成長型思維:你游泳成功的秘密武器(Growth Mindset: Your Secret Weapon for Swimming Success)



為什麼成長型思維對游泳運動員很重要?

Why Growth Mindset is Important for Swimmers?


因為游泳是一項需要長期努力和持續學習的運動。透過成長型思維,游泳運動員可以看到挑戰和失敗不是終點,而是學習和進步的機會。這種思維方式讓他們繼續提升技能,優化策略,並持久地保持動力和毅力,這對游泳這種高強度且技術性強的運動至關重要。

A growth mindset is crucial for swimmers because swimming is a sport that requires long-term effort and continuous learning. Through a growth mindset, swimmers can see challenges and failures not as endpoints but as opportunities for learning and improvement. This mindset allows them to keep improving their skills, optimizing strategies, and maintaining sustained motivation and resilience, which are vital for a high-intensity and technically demanding sport like swimming.


對於任何參與體育運動的人來說,無論是運動員、教練、評論員還是球迷,天賦的概念幾乎總是我們尋找的定義性角色。當然,這是一個非常重要的特徵,但它並沒有告訴我們,當兩名天賦相似的運動員競爭時,輸贏的區別是什麼,或者為什麼天賦較差的人可能會脫穎而出。

For anyone involved in sport, as an athlete, coach, commentator, or fan, the concept of talent is almost always the defining character that we look for. Of course, that is a hugely important trait, but it doesn’t tell us what makes the difference between winning and losing when two athletes of similar talent compete or why somebody with less talent might come out on top.


答案往往在於運動員的心理方法。成功不僅僅在於身體素質,還在於運動員對勝利的渴望,以及開放心態以提高技能、處理錯誤和不害怕失敗。人們常常認為,運動員只需具備天賦,這就足以發揮他們的潛力。然而,很明顯,心態在體育運動中起著重要作用。運動員的心態可以被證明是成功的一個主要因素這一觀點是從史丹佛大學心理學家卡羅爾·德韋克(Carol Dweck)在《心態:成功的新心理學》一書中發展而來的,該書著眼於我們的心態的力量,以及如何使我們的成功成為可能。最基本的改變可以對我們的生活產生深遠的影響。

The answer often lies in the mental approach of athletes. Success is not just about physical attributes but the desire of an athlete to win and also to open their mind to improving their skills, dealing with mistakes, and not fearing failure. Too often the belief was that an athlete simply needed to be a natural talent and this would be enough to fulfil their potential. However, it has become abundantly clear that mindset in sports plays a significant role. This notion that the mindset of an athlete can prove to be a major factor in success was developed from the work of Stanford psychologist Carol Dweck in Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, which looks at the power of our mental attitude and how even making the most basic alterations can have a profound effect on our lives.



從本質上講,具有固定心態的運動員認為自己的技能無法改變,其缺點可歸納如下:

  • 由於害怕失敗而迴避挑戰

  • 相信技能是與生俱來的

  • 輕易放棄

  • 努力被認為是不必要的

  • 感到沮喪或忽視反饋或批評

  • 因他人的成功而感到威脅

  • 感覺堅持不會有任何好處

人們普遍認為,成長心態可以讓運動員獲得進步的可能性,因為他們不害怕犯錯誤。成長心態可以幫助運動員:

  • 相信技能是通過努力磨練出來的

  • 迎接挑戰

  • 努力改進

  • 從其他運動員身上汲取靈感

  • 尋求反饋/批評以改進

  • 相信挫折可以幫助你學習


In essence, an athlete with a fixed mindset believes that their skills cannot be changed, and drawbacks can be summed up as follows:

  • Avoids challenges due to fear of failure

  • Believes skill is something you are born with

  • Gives up easily

  • The effort is seen as unnecessary

  • Gets frustrated or ignores feedback or criticism

  • Feels threatened by the success of others

  • Feels perseverance will not be any benefit

It is accepted that a growth mindset opens up an athlete to the possibility of improving as they are not afraid of making mistakes. A growth mindset helps an athlete to:-

  • Believe skills are fine-tuned from hard work

  • Embrace challenge

  • Strive to improve

  • Take inspiration from other athletes

  • Seek feedback/criticism to improve

  • Believe that setbacks help you learn


注意自己說出來的語言

Watch the language you use.


游泳運動員同樣需要注意自己說出的語言來避免負面的自我暗示,因為我們的思維和語言可以極大地影響我們的情緒和行為。負面的自我暗示,如“我無法完成這項訓練”或“我永遠不會像他們那樣好”,可能會削弱信心,限制可能性,並降低績效。

Swimmers must be mindful of their self-talk to avoid negative self-suggestion because our thoughts and language can significantly impact our emotions and actions. Negative self-suggestions, such as "I can't finish this training" or "I'll never be as good as they are," can undermine confidence, limit potential, and decrease performance.


相反,積極且具建設性的自我對話可以增強信心,激發動力,並有助於克服挑戰。透過將語言從負面轉向積極,如“我會努力完成這項訓練”或“我可以學習和進步以接近他們的水平”,運動員可以鼓舞自己並推動自身的成長與進步。

On the contrary, positive and constructive self-talk can boost confidence, inspire motivation, and assist in overcoming challenges. By shifting the language from negative to positive, such as "I will strive to complete this training" or "I can learn and improve to get closer to their level," athletes can inspire themselves and drive their growth and progress.


成長心態在行動

Growth Mindset in action


成長思維強調從行動開始,因為僅僅擁有積極的思考還不足以帶來真正的變化或進步。思想和行動必須一致,行動是實現目標和提升技能的關鍵方式。當我們面對挑戰或困難時,通過行動採取一種主動解決問題的態度,我們可以學習、適應並從經驗中成長。此外,行動本身就是一種學習過程,我們可以從我們的行為中反思和學習,這有助於培養並強化成長思維。

The growth mindset emphasizes starting with action because positive thinking alone is not enough to bring about real change or improvement. Thoughts and actions must be aligned, as action is the crucial way to achieve goals and enhance skills. When we face challenges or difficulties, by adopting a proactive problem-solving attitude through action, we can learn, adapt, and grow from the experience. Additionally, the action itself is a learning process, as we can reflect and learn from our behaviors, which helps cultivate and reinforce a growth mindset.


建立習慣

Building habits


培養習慣最有效的方式之一是增加行動的頻率,因為習慣的形成源於我們的大腦嘗試以最有效率的方式來處理反覆出現的任務。當我們反覆執行某項任務時,這個任務會變得越來越自動化,並轉移到大腦的基底節,這是大腦控制習慣的部分。

One of the most effective ways to develop a habit is by increasing the frequency of an action, as habit formation stems from our brain trying to manage repeated tasks in the most efficient way. When we repeatedly perform a task, it becomes increasingly automated and shifts to the basal ganglia, the part of the brain that controls habits.


因此,增加行動的頻率就等於增加大腦轉變任務為習慣的機會。這就是為什麼我們通常會建議人們從小處做起,並且持續地,每天都做一點點,來培養新的習慣。這不僅可以降低開始行動的障礙,而且可以幫助我們更快地將這些行動變成習慣。

Therefore, increasing the frequency of action equates to increasing the chances for the brain to convert that task into a habit. This is why it's commonly suggested to start small and do a little bit consistently every day when trying to establish a new habit. Not only can this lower the barrier to getting started, but it can also help us turn these actions into habits more quickly.


學習如何學習

Learn how to learn


學習如何學習和刻意練習對游泳運動員的技術成長非常重要

Learning and practicing deliberately are very important for a swimmer's technical growth.


"刻意練習"是一種專門針對提高技能和能力的訓練方法。這並不只是重複或增加練習的時間,而是要具有明確的目標、主動尋求反饋,並專注於改進個人的弱點。這個概念由心理學家安德斯·艾利克森(Anders Ericsson)提出,並在他的著作《刻意練習》中詳細介紹。

以下是刻意練習的幾個關鍵特點:

  1. 專注:進行刻意練習需要高度的注意力和專注。它並不是無意識地重複動作,而是需要心理上的主動參與。

  2. 明確的目標:刻意練習需要具體和明確的目標,這樣才能清楚知道需要改進的地方。

  3. 反饋:尋求並接受即時反饋是刻意練習的重要部分,因為這可以幫助人們理解自己的表現和需要改進的地方。

  4. 脫離舒適區:刻意練習通常要求人們嘗試那些他們還不擅長的技能,這樣才能確保他們的技能得到改進和提高。

"Deliberate practice" is a specific kind of training to improve skills and abilities. It's not just about repetition or spending more time practicing, but involves having explicit goals, actively seeking feedback, and concentrating on improving individual weaknesses. This concept was introduced by psychologist Anders Ericsson and detailed in his book, "Peak: Secrets from the New Science of Expertise."

Here are some critical characteristics of deliberate practice:

  1. Focused: Deliberate practice requires a high level of attention and focus. It's not about mindlessly repeating actions but involves mental engagement.

  2. Explicit Goals: Deliberate practice requires specific and clear goals so that one knows precisely what needs to be improved.

  3. Feedback: Seeking and receiving immediate feedback is a critical part of deliberate practice, as it helps individuals understand their performance and areas of improvement.

  4. Out of Comfort Zone: Deliberate practice typically involves attempting skills that one is not yet proficient at, ensuring growth and improvement.

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