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核心運動對游泳表現的5大好處!



核心運動對游泳的好處

THE BENEFITS OF CORE EXERCISE ON SWIMMING


快速游泳依賴於運動員同時用手臂和腿產生推進力的能力,同時盡量減少運動員在水中划水時所經歷的阻力。雖然全身力量很重要,但最快的游泳者通常是那些能夠在水中有效地建立流線型身體姿勢的人,同時還能保持支撐基礎,從而可以有效的用手臂和腿產生推進力。與大多數運動類似,通過軀幹調節核心肌肉對游泳表現至關重要。

Fast swimming relies on an athlete's ability to simultaneously generate propulsive force with the arms and legs while attempting to minimize the drag resistance experienced as she knifes through the water. While total-body strength is important, the fastest swimmers are typically those who are able to effectively establish a streamlined body position in the water while also maintaining a base of support from which they can effectively generate propulsion with the arms and legs. Similar to most sports, core muscle conditioning through the torso is critically important to swimming performance.


然而,游泳在運動中是獨一無二的,因為運動員與地面沒有互動;然而,運動員仍然需要保持穩定的核心軀幹,從而可以通過手臂和腿產生推進力。在陸地上進行的運動中,地面反作用力通過動力鏈從下肢傳遞;這個情況允許網球運動員產生高速發球。相反,游泳者不僅必須有效地調動核心肌肉組織以將上半身與下半身連接起來,而且還需要保持脊柱穩定性,這將建立一個支撐基礎,他可以從中執行適當的游泳力學。

However, swimming is unique among sports in that the athlete has no interaction with the ground; yet the athlete is still required to maintain a stable torso from which propulsive forces can be generated with the arms and legs. In sports performed on land, ground reaction forces are transferred from the lower extremities through the kinetic chain; this scenario allows a tennis player to generate a high-velocity serve. Conversely, a swimmer not only must effectively engage the core musculature to link the upper body to the lower body but also needs to maintain spinal stability that will establish a base of support from which he can execute proper stroke mechanics.


核心肌肉狀況不佳會導致技術缺陷和效率低下,從而對運動表現產生負面影響,甚至導致受傷。說到力量和體能訓練,核心肌肉可以說是游泳時最重要的身體部位,有效的訓練計劃能夠針對構成核心的所有肌肉,以實現肌肉平衡,從而實現全面有效的訓練。

Poorly conditioned core muscles can lead to technique flaws and inefficiencies that can negatively affect performance and even lead to injury. When it comes to strength and conditioning, the core muscles are arguably the most important area of the body to focus on in swimming, and an effective training program should address all of the muscles that make up the core to achieve the muscular balance that enables effective movement in all planes.

無論是自由式、仰式、蝶式還是蛙式,每一次划水都依賴於狀態良好的核心肌肉來維持穩定軀幹。這可以通過多種方式提高游泳成績:

Whether it's freestyle, backstroke, butterfly, or breaststroke, every stroke is reliant on well-conditioned core muscles to maintain a stable trunk. This enhances swimming performance in several ways:


1. 在水中保持流線型的身體姿勢:無論游泳者是在轉身後離開池壁還是在水上游泳,流線型都會減少阻力並達到更多的推進力。如果軀幹穩定性差,腿可能會向下垂,並且會消耗過多的能量來拖拽它們。此外,核心肌肉較弱的游泳者在每次拉動和踢腿時往往會拖尾(臀部和腿部的左右運動),從而產生額外的阻力並進一步降低游泳效率。因此,通過訓練有素的核心肌肉發展軀幹穩定性的一個主要優勢是能夠游得更快,而無需更用力地拉動或踢​​腿,僅僅是因為更好的使身體對齊減少阻力。

Maintaining a streamlined body position in the water: Whether swimmers are coming off the wall after a turn or swimming on the surface, being streamlined reduces drag and makes the propulsive forces that are generated more effective. With poor trunk stability, the legs will likely drop, and excessive energy will be expended to drag them through the water. Additionally, swimmers who have weak core muscles will often fishtail (side-to-side movements of the hips and legs) with every pull and kick, thereby creating extra drag and reducing swimming efficiency even more. Thus, a major advantage of developing trunk stability via well-conditioned core muscles is being able to swim faster without pulling or kicking any harder, simply because drag is reduced with better body alignment.


2. 建立穩定的支撐基礎:有人說,軀幹的穩定性會促進遠端肢體的活動性,在游泳中絕對如此。換句話說,擁有良好的軀幹穩定性可以讓游泳者將手臂和腿用於他們的目的——產生推進力。許多缺乏軀幹穩定性的游泳者通常依靠他們的手臂(例如,更寬或更深的推力)和腿(例如,雙腿張開)在水中提供平衡,尤其是在呼吸時。正因為如此,手臂和腿產生推進力的潛力還沒有完全實現。軀幹穩定性為手臂和腿產生有效的運動和推進提供了必要的支撐基礎。

Establishing a stable base of support: It has been said that trunk stability promotes distal limb mobility, and this is definitely the case in swimming. In other words, having good trunk stability allows a swimmer to use the arms and legs for what they were intended—generating propulsion. Many swimmers who lack trunk stability often rely on their arms (e.g., wider or deeper pulls) and legs (e.g., legs splaying apart) to provide balance in the water, especially when breathing. Because of this, the propulsion-generating potential of the arms and legs is not fully realized. Trunk stability provides the base of support needed to generate efficient movement and propulsion with the arms and legs.


3. 提升踢腿的效能:在上半身和下半身之間建立一個剛性連接,可以讓你的腿推動你而穿過水,而不是完全依靠你的手臂來推進。

Creating a rigid link between the upper and lower body allows your legs to push you through the water rather than relying entirely on your arms to pull you.


4. 在自由式和仰式中更輕鬆的做身體側轉體:大多數游泳者都曾被告知,在自由式和仰式游泳時,他們需要從臀部發力開始旋轉。這種身體旋轉對於有效拉動和踢腿是必要的。雖然踢腿會產生一些身體旋轉,但大部分還是來自核心肌肉組織,尤其是斜肌。

Generating body roll in freestyle and backstroke: Most swimmers, at one time or another, have been told they need to rotate from the hips when swimming freestyle and backstroke. This body rotation is necessary for efficient pulling and kicking. While some rotation is produced by the kick, much of it comes from the core musculature, particularly the oblique muscles.


5. 更有效的儲存體能和恢復能力:良好的核心肌肉能幫助游泳者在划水的某些階段儲存能量,然後可以在划水週期的後期獲得更多的恢復。

Storing and recovering elastic strain energy: Well-conditioned core muscles allow a swimmer to store energy during certain phases of a stroke that can then be recovered later in the stroke cycle.


結論就是,擁有一個穩定的軀幹可以通過產生更大的推進力、更好的流線型和更有效的划水力學來更快地游泳。

In summary, having a stable trunk enables faster swimming via the generation of larger propulsive forces, better streamlining, and more efficient stroke mechanics.

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