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游泳訓練週期的’’減量調整期‘’要記住的11件事(11 THINGS TO REMEMBER WHEN TAPER STARTS)

Updated: May 5, 2021


游泳訓練週期的’’減量調整期‘’要記住的11件事

11 THINGS TO REMEMBER WHEN TAPER STARTS

BY OLIVIER POIRIER-LEROY


從理論上講,對游泳運動員來說,減量調整影響應該是相當直接明瞭的。你游泳里程上下降了,在質量上提高了,加上技術方面做了一些調整,最後在大目標比賽上打破了你個人的最佳時間記錄。根據我自己的經歷,以及多年來與我交談過的無數游泳運動員的經驗,減量訓練期只是一段類似於假期訓練營和地獄週一樣艱難的時期。雖然生理上的工作量降低了,但是因為游泳次數、總距離減少和期望值提高就把它變成了每天的精神鬥爭。畢竟,在游泳的時候,我們開始會認為我們的身體應該準備好。我們在水裡會感覺很棒。進出泳池的一切都必須是完美的,否則我們對大型比賽的期望就會遭遇巨大的落差。

In theory, tapering should be fairly straightforward for swimmers. You come down in mileage, up the quality efforts a little bit here and there, fine-tune the technical aspects of your training, and then smash your personal best times at the big goal meet. In my own experience, as well as the countless swimmers I have spoken to over the years, tapering is just a trying period as the holiday training camp and hell week. Although the physiological workload comes down, it becomes a daily mental battle working through a reduction in yards and escalation of expectation. After all, during the swimming taper, we come to think that our bodies should be primed. That we should feel fantastic in the water. And that everything in and out of the pool has to be perfect otherwise our expectations for the big meet go into a violent free fall.


下次你開始為重要的比賽做準備進行減量調整的時候,為了讓你更好地控制你的狀態, 這裡有11件事需要記住:

The next time you start getting rested up for the big meet, here are 11 things to remember so that you can keep the taper blues in check:


1. 你的身體對休息過程的反應並不總是完全清楚

1. THE WAY YOUR BODY RESPONDS TO REST ISN’T ALWAYS COMPLETELY CLEAR.


有時候你會覺得休息好了,準備好幾天的時間進行減量調整。其他時候,實際上就是在比賽的前一天進行而已。但是當證明或結果不明顯時,去信任這個減量調整過程是困難的。在進行減量調整的過程中,你需要進行好幾個月的的訓練進行生理適應調適——這不會在一夜之間發生,也不會在幾天後發生。

Sometimes you will feel rested and ready to rock a couple of days into the taper. Other times it will be literally the day before the meet that the taper and rest have caught up to you and applied themselves. Trusting the process is difficult when the proof or results aren’t immediately apparent. During the taper is when you are making all of the physiological consolidations of months and months of training– it won’t happen overnight, nor will it happen after a couple of days.


2. 不要嘗試在其他地方彌補你的減量調整期

2. DON’T LOOK ELSEWHERE TO COMPENSATE FOR A LACK OF ACTIVITY.


減量調整帶來的休息感覺當然很棒。所以有了剩餘的精力,我們很自然地會去其他地方尋找一個發洩點。在比賽前,我感覺自己像一位精力充沛的百萬富翁。當時我想,溜進體育館,快速地舉重肯定是個好主意。這樣會有問題嗎? 我已經好幾個月沒舉重了,也沒有做任何伸展運動,這讓我在重要的比賽結束後的幾天裡只能忍受二頭肌腱的拉傷。真是聰明!(反話)

When the rest kicks in you feel on top of the world. With all of the surplus energy, it is natural to look elsewhere for an outlet to dump in. Feeling like a million bucks before a particular competition back in the day I thought it would be a great idea to duck into the gym and lift some weights real quickly. The only problem? Hadn’t lifted in months, and I didn’t bother stretching, leaving me with a strained bicep tendon a couple of days out of the big meet. Real S-M-R-T.


3. 在練習中就使用你的比賽裝備

3. USE YOUR COMPETITION GEAR IN PRACTICE.


在你去參加比賽之前就趕緊試試你的全新一套游泳裝備(泳衣/褲,泳鏡、泳帽、耳塞等)。 把玩和嘗試新裝備是平時訓練時候的事情而不是比賽前的時刻。

Try the brand new suit, expensive new goggles, cap, and earplugs in practice before you go to the meet. Practice is the time to play around and try new things, not the moments before the big race.


4. 做一些賽前的預演

4. DO SOME DRESS REHEARSALS.


第一個方法是在泳池邊上以你想達到的游泳速度來回走動。這對於你想要達到的速度會是一個生理上直接的感受,而不需要等到在幾天後全力投入的比賽才能得知。心理預演是另一個為比賽做準備的好方法。想象一下你的比賽,你在比賽前準備的方式,你在水中的感覺,以及當你碰到泳池壁並打破記錄的時刻!

One way to do this is to walk up and down the pool deck at the speed, you plan on swimming. This will give you a physical sense of the speed you want to hit without having to throw down a full-blown effort a couple of days out from the meet. Mental rehearsals are another great way to prepare for the meet. Visualize your race, the way you are going to get ready beforehand, how you feel in the water, and how awesome it will feel when you hit the wall and destroy that best time.


5. 減量調整期代表休息恢復,但不是完全不訓練

5. TAPER MEANS REST, BUT NOT COMPLETE REST.


你已經投入了大量的訓練,不要因為在重要比賽前的兩周內完全停止所有的訓練而浪費了你的成果。沒錯,減量調整訓練是讓身體機能恢復、修養期,但同時也是調整游泳技術細節的時期。我曾見過游泳運動員為了更好地休息而自動跳過此週期訓練,這樣就造成了比賽到來時候身體機能表現大大扣分。

You’ve already put in a ton of work, don’t let it go to waste by completely arresting all of your training in the two weeks leading up to the big meet. Taper is a time for your body to recover, yes, but it is also a time where you fine-tune the details of your swimming. I have seen swimmers self-taper by passing on workouts in order to better rest themselves, only leaving themselves feeling sluggish by the time they meet came around.


6. 出發與轉身

6. STARTS AND TURNS.


如果你現在又開始考慮游泳的出發跟轉身的話,你勝算的幾率就更大了。(實際上,你應該一年到頭都在研究這些棘手的問題,而不僅僅是在比賽前的最後幾天。)在2014年夏季奧運會100米自由泳決賽中,麥可•菲爾普斯(Michael Phelps)就因為沒能在轉身時加速時失誤。從泳池邊從牆外7-8米的地方跳水,衝刺+轉身是一個很不錯的方式來練習比賽轉身速度。

Odds are good that you have now begun to think about these aspects of your swimming again. (In reality, you should be working on these bad boys year-round, not just when you are in the final days before a competition.) Doing turns at speed means you will avoid making the same mistake Michael Phelps made at US Nationals in the summer of 2014 when he missed the wall turning in the 100m freestyle final. Diving from the side of the pool 7-8 meters out from the wall and sprinting in and turning is a great way to work on executing turns at race speed.


7. 避免成為Google/網絡醫生

7. AVOID THE URGE TO BECOME A GOOGLE DOCTOR.


當我們在一場荒謬的訓練中,我們的身體會痠痛不已。但是當我們進入減量訓練階段時,我們希望一切都能感覺完美。所以出現疼痛後就會被分解、過度分析和網絡搜索。(網絡搜索是找出你的問題的最糟糕的方法。不管你的症狀是什麼,你都會把注意力集中在最壞的診斷上。減量訓練時期出現的一些疼痛實際上是相當自然的,特別是那些快速抽搐的肌肉纖維,完全能夠在游泳過程中就被分解消退。

It’s funny—when we are in the middle of a ridiculous bout of training our body will be littered with soreness and aches. But the moment we get into the taper phase of training we expect everything to feel perfect. A soreness or ache will be dissected, over-analyzed, and Google’d. (Google is the worst way to figure out what is wrong with you. No matter what the symptom you will always fixate on the absolute worst possible diagnosis.) Some taper soreness is actually quite natural, particularly with those fast-twitch muscle fibers that are now being fully maxed out during high-quality reps in the pool.


8. 現在不是試驗新技術的時候

8. NOW IS NOT THE TIME TO EXPERIMENT WITH A NEW TECHNIQUE.


我最喜歡引用費城老鷹隊主教練奇普·凱利的話來說明這一點,他說:「不要奢望投機取巧,結果只跟你的準備程度有關。」如果因為你在YouTube上看到一些游泳者可以速度很快而想換這種直臂自由式的話,當然可以, 前提是,在你重大比賽之後再進行,平時的訓練才是學習新技能的時候。當你在比賽時,你應該關注你當下的比賽,而不是你試水剛剛學習的新技術。

One of my favorite quotes that exemplifies this is from Philadelphia Eagles head coach Chip Kelly, “You don’t rise to the occasion, you sink to the level of your preparation.” If you want to change to a straight-arm freestyle recovery because you saw some fast swimmers do it on YouTube, by all means do so, after the big meet. When in competition you want to be able to turn off your mind and race at the moment instead of focusing on the technical aspects of your swimming. Getting technical is for practice.


9. 睡多點=游快點

9. SWIM FASTER BY SLEEPING MORE.


僅僅因為我們減少了泳池內的訓練總數,並不意味著我們就應該整夜保持這些剩餘的能量。你應該像在艱苦的訓練中一樣,每天晚上都要集中精力保證充足的睡眠,以便在減量調整期或微調期間的過程中最大限度地恢復。即使每晚多睡一小時也能顯著提高睡眠質量,所以不要低估了充足睡眠帶來的益處。就性能輔助而言,這是非常簡單的操作了。

Just because we are cutting back the meters and yards in the pool doesn’t mean that we should be staying up all night with that newfound energy. You should be just as focused on getting a ton of sleep each night to maximize recovery during the taper or fine-tuning period as you are during hard training. The effects of even an extra hour of sleep a night have been shown to improve performance drastically, so don’t underestimate the benefits of spending that quality time with your pillow. In terms of performance aids, this is as easy as it gets.


10. 不必緊張,要相信減量調整訓練是科學有效的

10. DON’T FREAK OUT, THIS TAPER THING WORKS.


無論你在大賽前的日子裡有多緊張或焦慮,記住,減量調整是有效的。全面的研究表示,大多數運動員的成績會因為經過減量訓練而成績提高2-3%(有些運動員幾乎提高6%)。所謂的「大賽」游泳運動員)。如果這是你的第一次嘗試減量調整,深呼吸,記住緊張和猶豫實際上是這個過程的一部分。對於那些正在經歷他們第無數次減量調整期的人來說,你已經知道它起作用了,所以要淡定,盡情放鬆並享受你努力工作的成果吧!

No matter how stressed or anxious you are getting in the days leading up to the meet, remember that tapering works. Comprehensive research has shown that most athletes can expect a 2-3% improvement in performance as a result of tapering (with some experiencing as high as a 6% boost—a.k.a. the “meet” swimmer). If this is your first taper, take a breath and remember that the nervousness and second doubting is practically part of the process. And for those who are going through their umpteenth taper, you already know that it works, so sit back and rest up and enjoy the fruits of your hard work!


11. 每個人身體對於減量調整訓練的反應程度都不一樣

11. WE ALL RESPOND SLIGHTLY DIFFERENTLY.


我們的身體機能對於減量調整時期的反應會受到很多因素影響的。例如一位兩天一練做瘦身的游泳運動員跟一位一天一練的肌肉型短跑運動員對於訓練的反應是沒有可比性的。無可厚非你會想在練習的時候瞄一眼在你旁邊泳道上的人,又或者跟你的隊友比一比。 但是因為每個人不同的訓練背景,訓練項目,當時的生理狀況,以及所有泳池之外的種種會造成區別的因素都決定了每個人對於減量調整訓練的反應程度都不一樣。

There is a myriad of factors that go into how we respond to the taper phase. A two-a-day extra lean distance swimmer is going to have a different reaction to coming down in training than a one-a-day muscled-out sprinter. It’s understandable that you are going to want to look over in the lane next to you at practice and compare yourself to your teammates, but your taper response is unique to your training background, your event, your physiology, and all of the out of the water conditions that differentiate.


文章來源-https://swimswam.com/11-things-to-remember-when-taper-starts/

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