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速度與力量:游泳運動員需要力量訓練的 6 個理由(Speed and Strength: 6 Reasons Swimmers Need Strength Training)



速度與力量:游泳運動員需要力量訓練的 6 個理由

Speed and Strength: 6 Reasons Swimmers Need Strength Training


在過去的 30 年裡,尤其是最近十年,游泳運動以驚人的速度發展。隨著運動生理學研究的重要發現逐漸浮出水面,游泳運動員和教練都調整了訓練方法,以最大限度地提高成績。力量和體能訓練是當今競技游泳運動員取得成功的關鍵。隨著時間的推移,力量訓練的類型可能會發生變化,當運動員達到大學水平後,可能會加入更多的重量訓練,但其目的始終不變:提高游泳運動員在泳池中的力量、運動能力和整體速度。以下是將力量訓練納入游泳運動員計劃的六大原因。

The sport of swimming has accelerated at an incredible rate over the past 30 years, particularly in the last decade. As important findings from exercise physiology research surface, swimmers and coaches have adjusted their training methods to maximize performance. Strength and conditioning training are crucial to the success of any competitive swimmer in today’s arena. The type of strength training may change over time, perhaps incorporating more weights once the athlete reaches the collegiate level, but its purpose remains the same: to improve the swimmer’s power, athleticism, and overall speed in the pool. Here are five major reasons to incorporate strength training into a swimmer’s program.



1. 增強肌肉和骨密度

僅靠游泳很難鍛鍊肌肉。儘管游泳時有重復動作和全身運動,但肌肉群並沒有得到明顯的發展。當肌肉受到壓力時,例如自身體重或陸地上的啞鈴,肌肉就會發出信號,通過收縮來抵抗重力向下的作用。陸地上的力量練習就會產生許多這樣的壓力。當肌肉做出反應時,如舉起啞鈴,組織中就會出現微小的撕裂並導致痠痛。當身體修復這些微小撕裂時,肌肉就會增生。在水中拉動身體不能像在陸地上進行力量訓練那樣對組織生長產生刺激作用,因為重力的感知力降低了。


游泳運動員進行負重力量訓練的另一個好處是可以增加骨密度。骨骼承受重量可刺激骨組織生長。根據《運動訓練雜誌》(Journal of Athletic Training)1 上的一項研究,大學女生游泳運動員的骨密度在不同運動項目的運動員中最低。游泳運動員之所以有這種傾向,是因為她們的大部分訓練時間都是在泳池中渡過的。

1. Building Muscle and Bone Density

It is very difficult to build muscle through swimming alone. Despite the repetitive movements and whole body integration while swimming, muscle groups are not triggered to develop significantly. When a stress is placed on a muscle, such as the weight of your own body or a dumbbell on land, the muscle is signaled to resist the downward force of gravity by contracting. Strength exercises on land create a number of these stressors. When muscles respond, as in the lifting of a dumbbell, micro-tears in the tissue occur and cause soreness. As the body repairs these micro-tears, muscle builds up. Pulling one’s body through water cannot create this stimulation for tissue growth as much as strength exercises on land because the perceived force of gravity is reduced.


Another benefit of weight-bearing strength training for swimmers is that it increases bone density. Loading weight on bones stimulates bone tissue to develop. Female collegiate swimmers, according to a study in the Journal of Athletic Training1, have the lowest bone density of a variety of athletes in different sports. Swimmers have this tendency because they spend the majority of their training in the pool.



2. 核心力量

核心力量對游泳至關重要。它能使游泳者保持正確的水平身體位置,從而最大限度地減少阻力。它能使游泳者在轉身時更快地加速,並以乾淨利落的入水方式在下潛時保持更快的速度。力量訓練通常需要在複雜的動作中整合各種肌肉,而核心部位則是動作的中心。為了有效地將力量從身體的一個部位傳遞到另一個部位,你需要一個能夠快速參與的強大核心。這適用於你比賽中的每一個部分。

2. Core strength

The core is critical to swimming. It maintains the correct body position of the swimmer when horizontal to minimize drag. It enables the swimmer to accelerate faster in a turn, and carry more speed off a dive with a clean entry. Strength training often requires the integration of various muscles in complex movements, with the core at the center of the action. In order to transfer force efficiently from one part of the body to another, you need a strong core that engages quickly. This applies to every part of your race.



3. 預防受傷

游泳中的重復動作會導致慢性損傷。力量訓練可以改變運動模式,挑戰肌肉學習新的運動。它可以針對因游泳而發育不足的部位進行訓練,緩解對壓力較大的肌肉群的部分需求。更強壯的肌肉還有助於正確地分配力量,減輕關節、肌腱和韌帶的負擔。

3. Injury Prevention

The repetitive motions in swimming can lead to chronic injuries. Strength training varies patterns of movement and challenges muscles to learn new exercises. It can target areas left underdeveloped by swimming and relieve some of the demand placed on more stressed muscle groups. Stronger muscles also help distribute force correctly, putting less strain on joints, tendons and ligaments.



4. 提高身體的整體控制能力

我們在水中對身體的控制力越強,划水的效率就越高,從而提高游泳時間。平板支撐等力量訓練有助於提高我們的整體身體控制能力,讓我們在水中保持更流線、更高效的姿勢。

4. Improve Overall Body Control

The more control we have over our bodies in the water, the more efficient we can be with our strokes - leading to improved swim times. Strength training exercises like planks can help improve our overall body control, allowing us to maintain a more streamlined and efficient position in the water.



5. 增強心理耐受性

游泳和其他運動一樣,需要心理耐受性和韌性。力量訓練可能很艱苦,但堅持下來可以增強我們的心理承受力,幫助我們在艱難的游泳過程中保持動力。

5. Enhance Mental Stamina

Swimming, like any other sport, requires mental endurance and toughness. Strength training sessions can be grueling, but pushing through them strengthens our mental fortitude and can help us stay motivated during tough swimming sets.



6. 避免成績停滯不前

游泳是一項很容易出現高原反應的運動,無論我們怎麼游,成績都不會提高。力量訓練是突破高原期的關鍵。通過力量訓練增強肌肉力量有助於提高游泳成績,同時還能增強整體體能。

6. Avoid Plateauing in Performance

Swimming is a sport where it's easy to plateau - to reach a stage where no matter how much we swim, our times don't improve. Strength training can be the key to breaking through that plateau. Building stronger muscles through strength training can help improve swim times while also enhancing overall physical fitness.

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