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Managing Hydration During the Taper

對鐵人三項運動員來說, 保持良好的營養和水分補充仍然是成功參與競爭的關鍵。運動員一開始以較差的補水和較低的糖原儲備參加長距離耐力項目(如鐵人三項),將直接危及自己的表現水平。在賽前階段,鐵人三項運動員需要採取營養策略和補水策略以最大限度地發揮減量的好處。

For triathletes, maintaining a good nutrition and hydration status remains critical for successful participation in the competition. Starting a race with a poor hydration status or low glycogen stores directly endangers the performance level of athletes engaged in long-duration events, such as triathlons. Triathletes need to adopt both nutrition and hydration strategies during the precompetition period to maximize the taper-associated benefits.


Ensure Good Hydration Status

高溫環境的刺激會挑戰鐵人三項運動員的心血管系統·溫度調節系統·體液平衡和運動表現的極限。蒸發出汗是高溫環境中散熱的主要方式,在高溫環境中,汗液的流失量經常超過水分的攝入量。當脫水量超過全身水分的3% (相當於體重的2%) 時,有氧運動能力就會受到高溫刺激的影響。脫水使得體溫升高和血漿量減少,從而加大了心血管的壓力和降低了最大攝氧能力 (Cheuvront et al., 2010)。卡薩等人 (2010) 稱,在12千米 (7.5英里) 賽跑開始時,輕度脫水 (損失體重的2.3%水分)損害了運動員在高溫下長跑的生理功能和運動表現。這一發現強調,在減量期間補足水分,尤其是在鐵人三項比賽前的48小時內,對於確保運動能力不受影響至關重要。

Environmental heat stress can challenge the limits of a triathlete’s cardiovascular and temperature regulation systems, body fluid balance, and performance. Evaporative sweating is the principal means of heat loss in warm to hot environments where sweat losses frequently exceed fluid intakes. When dehydration exceeds 3 percent of total body water (2 percent of body mass), then aerobic performance may be consistently impaired independent of and additive to heat stress. Dehydration augments hyperthermia and plasma volume reductions, which combine to accentuate cardiovascular strain and reduce O2max (Cheuvront et al. 2010). Casa et al. (2010) showed that a small decrement in hydration status (body mass loss of 2.3 percent) at the start of a 12-kilometer (7.5 miles) race impaired physiological function and performance while running in the heat. This finding highlights that adequate hydration during the taper, especially during the 48 hours preceding a triathlon competition, is crucial for ensuring that work capacity is not diminished at the beginning of the race.

尿液顏色可以衡量水化狀態,是廉價可靠的指標 (Armstrong et al., 1994)。正常的尿液顏色為淺黃色,而中度脫水和重度脫水的顏色分別是深黃色和棕綠色。雖然尿液的顏色往往低估了脫水程度,而且如果運動員迅速消耗了大量的液體,那麼尿液的顏色可能會產生誤導,但它提供了一個有效的方法,讓運動員可以自己評估補水程度,尤其是在減量期間。

Urine color is an inexpensive and reliable indicator of hydration status (Armstrong et al. 1994). Normal urine color is described as light yellow, whereas moderate and severe dehydration is associated with a dark yellow and brownish-green color, respectively. Although urine color tends to underestimate the level of hydration, and it may be misleading if a large amount of fluid is consumed rapidly, it provides a valid means for triathletes to self-assess hydration level, notably during the taper period.

From the USA Triathlon

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